Cucurbitaceae – Cucurbita maxima (Kadu)

Cucurbitaceae – Cucurbita maxima (Kadu)

The family comprises of 100 genera and 850 species distributed mainly in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Most members are cultivated for their edible fruits. The common are: Cucurbita maxima (Kadu), Luffa cylindrica (Ghia tori), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Citrullus vulgaris (Water melon) and momordica charantia (Karela).

Distinguish Features:

Herbs with weak stems tendril climber, simple leaves of palmate type, flower unisexual, epigynous, calyx 5 united, corolla 5 to many, stamen 5, tricapillary, syncarpous, unilocular, inferior ovary.

Cucurbita maxima (kadu):

Habit:

A tendril climbing herb cultivated for its edible fruit used as vegetable. The plant is monoecious bearing unisexual male and female flowers.

Stem:

Weak, hairy, herbaceous, juicy.

Leaf:

Cauline and ramal, alternate, exstipulate, petiolate (petioles long), simple, reticulate, multicostate, leaf lamina palmately lobed (4 – 7 lobes).

Cucurbita maxima (kadu) Leaf

Cucurbita maxima (kadu) Leaf

Inflorescence:

Cymose solitary axillary.

Flowers

Both Male and Female Flowers are as Follow:

Cucurbita maxima (kadu) Flower

Cucurbita maxima (kadu) Flower

Male Flower (Staminate Flower):

Bracteate, pedicellate, incomplete, actinomorphic, unisexual, pentamerous, staminate.

Calyx:

Five sepals, gamosepalous, campanulate, superior.

Corolla:

Five petals, polypetalous, campanulate, superior.

Androecium:

Five stamens, four united in pairs and one free, sigmoid, superior.

Gynoecium:

Absent.

Floral Formula: K(5)  C(5)  A1+(2)+(2) G_-0.

Female Flower (Pistillate Flower):

Pedicellate, incomplete, actinomorphic, epigynous, unisexual pistillate, pentamerous.

Calyx:

Five sepals, gamosepalous, campanulate, superior.

Corolla:

Five petals, gamopetalous, campanulate, superior.

Androecium:

Absent.

Gynoecium:

Tricarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, and unilocular with many ovules, placentation parietal, style cylindric, stigma trilobed.

Floral Formula: K(5)  C(5)  A(0) G(3).

Cucurbita maxima (kadu) Floral Diagram

Cucurbita maxima (kadu) Floral Diagram

 

Umbelliferae – Coriandrum sativum (Dhaniya)

Umbelliferae – Coriandrum sativum (Dhaniya)

Herb with a fistular stem, leaves, alternate, generally compound or much incised, inflorescence a typical compound umbel, flower actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, epigynous, pentamerous, calyx 5 sepals, corolla 5 free petals, stamens 5, bicapillary, inferior ovary. Some important genera are Coriandrum sativum, Carum carvi (kala zera), Cuminum cyminum (Safad zera), Foeniculum vulgare (Saunf).

Coriandrum sativum (Dhaniya):

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania)

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania)

Habit:

A cultivated annual herb.

Stem:

Erect, cylindrical, weak, herbaceous, fistular, branched.

Leaf:

Cauline and ramal, alternate, exstipulate, sessile, sheeting leaf base, compound, deeply incised 2-4 pinnate.

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) leafs

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) leafs

Leaflets:

2-3 lobed, linear, entire, acute, reticulate, unicostate, glabrous, herbaceous.

Inflorescence:

Compound umbel, involucres abd involucerl present.

Flower:

Ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, epigynous, cyclic, pentamerous.

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Flower

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Flower

Calyx:

Five sepals, calyx tube adnate to the ovary, gamosepalous, calyx teeth 5, small, unequal, slightly petaloid, superior.

Corolla:

Five petals, polypetalous, white, superior, inner or the posterior petals are smallest and lobed, the anterior is largest and deeply bilobed, two lateral are medium sized and unequal bilobed.

Androecium:

Five stamens, polyandrous, filament long, anther dorsifixed superior.

Gynoecium:

Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, a small fleshy nectar secreting disc lying above it form the nectar, bilocular with in pendulous ovule in each loculus, style absent, stigma two, arising from the disc.

Floral Formula: K(5)  C5  A5 G2.

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Floral Diagram

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Floral Diagram

Economic Importance of the Family:

Following are the economic importance of the family.

Source of Food:

Carrot (Daucus carota), parsley (Petroselinum sativum) are the chief members, used as pot herbs.

Source of Fodder:

Several members of the family are important as forage plant for cattle and horses. Of these carrot, Heracleum spp, Angelica spp, etc.

Condiments:

Ferula (Hing), Carum (Ajwain), Cuminum (Zira), Corandrium (Dhaniya) are used as condiments. These plants contain volatile oils which may be used for fragrance.

Source of Medicine:

Ajwain, Hing, Sowa are used as drugs. Hydrocotyle (Brahmi) is used for brain work.

Poisons:

Several plants contain acrid juices which are narcotic like Conimu (Hemlock).

Fabaceae (Mimosaceae) – Acacia nilotica

Fabaceae (Mimosaceae)

The plants of this family almost exclusively tropical or sub-tropical in distribution. The family is represented by about 40 genera. Most members exhibit xeromorphic characteristics. The most common genera are; Acacia nilotica (kikar), mimosa pudica (lajvanti), Prosopis, Albizia lebbeck (shirin), etc.

Distinguish Features:

Shrubs or tree, pinnate compound leaves, stipules are modified into thorns, inflorescence a spikate, head, flower hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, hypogynous, calyx 5 united, corolla 5 united, stamen numerous, ovary is with single carpal, fruit is a legume.

The representative species is Acacia nilotica (kikar or babul).

Acacia nilotica (Kikar)

Acacia nilotica (Kikar)

Acacia nilotica (kikar or babul):

Habit:

A medium-sized evergreen spiny tree with dark-brown bark. The bark yields gum.

Stem:

Erect, cylindrical, branched, woody.

Leaf:

Cauline and ramal, stipulate, stipules modified into spines, bipinnately compound, pulvinus present at the base of leaf, rachis possesses glands.

Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Leaf

Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Leaf

Pinnules:

Opposite, sub-sessile, oval, reticulate unicostate, glabrous.

Inflorescence:

A compound cymose head.

Flower:

Minute, ebracteate, sessile, complete, actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous, yellow in color.

Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Flower

Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Flower

Calyx:

5 sepals, membranous, gamosepalous, campanulate, slightly petaloid, inferior.

Corolla:

5 petals, gamopetalous, tubular, petals yellow in color, inferior.

Androecium:

Stamens indefinite, polyandrous, filament long, anthers minute, basfixed and yellow in color.

Gynoecium:

Monocaepellary, ovary superior and unilocular, placentation marginal, style long, stigma minute and capitate.

Floral Formula: K(5)  C(5)  A∞ G_1

Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Floral Diagram

Acacia nilotica (Kikar) Floral Diagram

Economic Importance of the Family:

The family is of great economic importance and ranks second, the first being Gramineae.

Source of Pulses:

The seeds of several plants yield all the various pulses like mong, mash, arhar, beans, grams and peas etc, which are commonly used as food stuffs, being rich in proteins and starches.

Source of Timber:

Many trees yield excellent timber e.g., Acacia, Dalbergia, Bauhinia, Gassia, tamarind and Prosopis.

Source of oil:

Some plants like Arrachis (ground-nut) yield oil and seeds which are edible. Ground-nut oil, when hydrogenated yields vegetable ghee.

Source of vegetables:

Several plants afford vegetables, e.g., Pisum (mattar), Vigna (Lobia), Glycine (soyabean), Trigonella (methe), Vicia (bakla), Dolichos (sem), Medicago (methi).

Fooder Crop:

Most of them are used as chief fodder crops, e.g., Melilotus (senji), medicage (mena), Vicia (bakla) etc.

Source of Dyes:

Some yield valuable dyes, Indigofera (neel), Haematoxylon (haematoxylin) and Acacia: the bark of the latter yields tannin used in leather tanning.

Source of Gum Arabica:

Gum Arabica is obtained from the bark of Acacia Arabica and A. Senegal.

Katha is obtained from Acacia catechu.

Source of Fibers:

Grotolaria juncea-sunn-hemp and other species-yield fibers for rope making.

Ornamental Plant:

Many are cultivated as ornamental plants, in the gardens and planted along the road side, e.g., Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet Pea), Parkinsonia, Gaesalpinia, Poinciana, Bauhinias and Cassias. Some species of Glitoria and lupines are also grown in the gardens for their flowers.

Source of Lac:

The lac insect is often bred on Butea and Cajanus spp.

Source of Manure:

Many of the leguminous herbs and shrubs are used as green manure (clover).

Source of Fertility:

The presence of nitrifying in their root-nodules contributes to the fertility of the soil and this accounts for their frequent use in the rotation of the crops.

Source of Medicine:

Some plants yield medicine, e.g., Cassia fistula (amaltas), the pulp of which acts as a purgative.

Lycopodiophyta-LYCOPSIDA

Occurrence

Selaginella is a tropical plant. It has world wide distribution. It grows in damp forests. Some species occur in temperate regions. They grow in moist shady places.

Lycopodiophyta-LYCOPSIDA

Lycopodiophyta-LYCOPSIDA

General structure

The plant body is sporophyte. The body is divided into root, stern and leaves.

Stem: The main stein is prostrate. Some erect braches arise form the main stem.

Rhizophore: Main stem develops leafless structures called rhizophore. Rhizophore grows downward. It develops adventitious roots at its tip. The rhizophore are intermediate in structure between the root and the stem. It is without nodes and intemodes.

Leaves: The main stem and the branches are covered by green leaves. Each leave has a ligule. The leaves are of two sizes, large and small. The leaves are arranged in four vertical rows. Leaves present in pairs. The larger leaf of each pair is attached toward, die ventral side of the stem and the smaller leaf towards the dorsal side. The leaves bearing sporangia in their axils are called sporophylls. Many sporophylls form cones or strobili.

Internal structure of the stem

In cross section, the stem is composed of epidermis, cortex and central stele.

1.  Epidermis: It is outermost layer. It is without stomata.

2.  Cortex: Cortex is present inner to the epidermis. It has many layered. It composed of parenchymatous cells. The cortex surrounds central stele. Cell of peripheral region of cortex contain chloroplasts. In mature regions of stem, the cortex form sclerenchymatous hypodermis.

3. Stele: Their stele is from monostelic to polystelic condition. Each
stele is protostelic in nature. The metaxylem forms the solid central core. The protoxylem groups on the periphery. The xylem core is surrounded by the phloem. Outside the phloem is the pericycle. It is composed of single layer of parenchymatous cells. The stele is separated from the cortex by a wide,air space. These spaces have long radiating cells called trabeculea. Trabeculea connect the stele with the cortex.

Internal Structure of the Root:

The root has a single layered epidermis. Inner to the epidermis is a many layered cortex. A well developed single layered endodermis separates the cortex from the stele. There is no air space surrounding the stele. The stele is protostelic and monarch. There is a single layered pericycle between the phloem and the endodermis. The internal structure of the rhizophore is similar to that of the root

Internal Structure of the Leaf:

The leaf is covered by a single layered epidermis. The cells of epidermis contain chloroplasts. Stomata are present on the upper, or on the lower, or on both sides of the leaf. The mesophyll is formed of parenchymatous cells. These cells are loosely arranged and they have numerous intercellular spaces. Each cell contains one or more chloroplasts. Each chloroplast contains several pyrenoid-like bodies. The mesophyll is traversed by a single vein.

Sporangia

Selaginella is heterosporous. The larger spores are megaspores and the smaller spores are microspores. Megaspores are produced in megasporangia and microspores are produced in microsporangia. Both sporangia are borne in the axils of leaves called microsporophyll and megasporophylls. This condition is called stachyosporous. The sporophylls form definite cones or strobili. Both kinds of sporangia are found in the same strobilus. Megasporangia are present in the basal portion and the microsporangia are present in the upper part of the cone.

Each microsporangium contains several microspores. But them are only four megaspores in each sporangium. The mature spores are pyramidal in shape. The sporangial wall consists of three layers. The inner most layer is tapetum. They provide nourishment to the developing spores. A slit is produced in mature sporangia.The spores come out of this slit.

The spores germinate to develop gametophytes. Microspore give rise to male gametophytes and the megaspores produces female gametophytes. Both male and female gametophytes remain within the walls of the spores. The young embryo develops in the megaspore. This is an approach towards the seed habit.

Sporangia

Sporangia

Development of Sporangia

The development of micro and megasporangia is similar upto the formation of spore mother cells.

1. The sporangia initials are present in the axil of the leaf. The sporangial initials divide to form outer cells called the jacket initials, and an inner group of cells called archesporial initials.

2.  The archesporial initials divides to form mass of sporogenous tissue. The outer most layer of the sporogenous tissue forms tapetum. The jacket initials by further divisions give rise to a jacket.

3.  All the sporogenous cells in the microsporangia become spore mother cells. The spore mother cells separate from each other. They undergo meiosis to form microspores. Several spore mother cells are produced in the megasporangium. But only one spore mother cell is functional. All others disintegrate. The spore mother cells divide meiotically to produce four megaspores. The development of the megaspores started before their shedding from the sporangia.

Gametophytes

Development of the Male Gametophyte:

I. The development of the male gametophyte started within the microsporangia. Microspore divides into two unequal cells. The smaller cell is called prothalial cell. The larger cell is called the antheridial cell.

2. The prothalial cell does not divide further. Antheridial cell divides to produce 12 cells. Four cells occupy the centre. They become primary androgonial cells. These cells are surrounded by the remaining eight peripheral cells. The microspores are liberated from the sporangia at this 12-cell stage.

3. The outer eight cells form the jacket of the antheridium. The androgonial cells divide to produce a mass of 128-256 androcytes or antherozoid mother cells. Each androcyte develops into biflagellate antherozoid. The prothalial cell and jacket cells disintegrate and liberate the antherozoids in the surrounding water.

Development of the Male Gametophyte

Development of the Male Gametophyte

Development of the Female Gametophyte:

The germination of the megaspores started in the megasporangium. Spore increases in size. Nucleus of the spore undergoes several divisions. It makes the spore multinucleate. A large central vacuole develops in the spore. It pushes the whole of cytoplasm towards the pointed end of the spore. The vacuole gradually disappears. Two or three layers of cells are formed towards the pointed end of the spore. A clear membrane diaphragm separates the cellular layers from the rest of the cytoplasm. The spore wall ruptures at the pointed end exposes the cellular layers. The exposed cells develop chloroplasts.

Some cells produce rhizoids.

1. Several superficial cells of exposed tissues become archegonial initials. The archegonial initial divides into an upper primary cover cell and a lower central cell.

2.  The primary cover cell divides to form the neck of the archegonium. The central cell divides to produce an upper primary canal cell and a lower primary ventral cell. The primary canal cell functions as single neck canal cell:

3.  The primary ventral cell divides to produces a lower egg or oospbere and an upper ventral canal cell. The surrounding vegetative tissue forms the wall of the venter. The ventral canal cell and the neck canal cells of mature archegonia disintegrate. They form a passage for the entry of antherozoids.

Fertilization

Fertilization always takes place in moisture. Antherozoids swim in water. One antherozoid enters into archegonium. It fuses with oosphere to produce oospore.

Development of the Embryo:

1.  The oospore divides into two cells. The upper cell enlarges. It is cilled suspensor. The lower cell is called the embryonal cell. It develops into the embryo. The suspensor pushes the developing embryo into the tissue of the gametophyte.

2.  The embryonal cell divides to form eight cells or octants. Two cells of the octants divide more rapidly. They produce an outgrowth called foot on one side. Foot is the chief food absorbing organ of the developing embryo.

Development of the Embryo

Development of the Embryo

3.  The remaining cells of octant form a mass of cells. The cel tral group of cells in this miss forms the apical meristem. The remaining cells of these mass produce rudiments of the first leuves or cotyledonary leaves.

4.  Root primordium arises as a protuberance between the foot and the suspensor. The root primordium forms rhizcrphore.

5.  Further growth of the apical meristem pushes the embryo out of the gametophytic tissue. Stem grows upward taking with it the cotyledonary leaves. The rhizophore grows downward and produces adventitious roots.

Alternation of Generation

Selaginella shows a regular alternation of sporophytic and gametophytic generations. The vegetative plant is diploid sperophyte. It produces haploid micro and mega spores by meiosis. These spores give rise to male and female gametophytes. Gantetophytes produce male and female gametes. The gametes fuse to form diploid oospore. This oospore develops into the sporophyte.

Evolutionary advancement of Selaginella:

Approach to seed habit:

Selaginella shows an evolutionary advancement over the other Pteridophyta. It has an approach towards seed habit due to following advanced characteristics.

1. The production of gametes, fertilization and the development of the embryo, take place on the sporophyte. Megaspore is never released from the sporophyte.

2.  Selaginella is heterosporous. The microspore produces the male gametophyte: It completes its development within the wall of the spore.

3.  Megaspore contains a large amount of reserve food material. The female gametophyte completes its whole development within the megaspore wall. Fertilization and the development of the embryo also take place within spore wall. The developing gametophyte arid the embryo use the reserve food.

4.  In many cases the megaspore is not released from the megasporangium. The development of the gametophyte, fertilization of the oosphere and the early development of the embryo take place while the spore is still in the sporangium.

Evolutionary advancement of Selaginella

Evolutionary advancement of Selaginella

Fabaceae – Cassia fistula (Amaltas)

Fabaceae-Caesalpiniaceae

The members of the family are distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions. There are about 135 genera in the family. The most commonly found members of the family are Cassia fistula (amaltas), Bauhinia (kachnar – flowers used as vegetable), Tamarindus (imli), Poinciana (gul-e-mohr), Parkinsonia (vilayati kikar), Saraca indica (ashok) and Caesalpinia.

Distinguish Features:

Herb, shrubs or tree, paripinnate compound leaves, inflorescence pendulous, flower hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, perigynous, calyx 5 united, corolla 5, stamen ten in number, free, ovary is with single carpal, fruit is a legume.

The representative species is Cassia fistula (Amaltas).

Cassia fistula (Amaltas)

Cassia fistula (Amaltas)

Cassia fistula (Amaltas):

Habit:

A cultivated tree, root bark, seeds and leaves possess medicinal properties.

Root:

Tap root, branched.

Stem:

Erect, woody, branched, cylindrical.

Leaf:

Ramal and cauline, petiolate, stipulate, (stipules caduceus), alternate, paripinnately compound, pulvinus present at the base of leaf.

Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Leaves

Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Leaves

Leaflets:

4-8 leaflets, opposite, sub sessile, ovate, entire, reticulate unicostate, glabrous.

Inflorescence:

A simple pendulous raceme.

Flower:

Bracteate, pedicellate, complete, bisexual, slightly perigynous , zygomorphic, slightly perigynous.

Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Leaves

Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Leaves

Calyx:

5 sepals, polysepalous, imbricate, slightly petaloid inferior.

Corolla:

5 petals, polypetalous, imbricate, petals clawed and yellow in color, inferior.

Androecium:

Ten stamens, polyandrous, stamens unequal in length, three posterior stamens reduced to staminodes, anthers basfixed, inferior.

Gynoecium:

Monocaepellary, ovary superior and unilocular with many ovules, placentation marginal, style short, stigma terminal and hairy.

Floral Formula: K5 C5 A3+4+3 G_1

Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Leaves

Cassia fistula (Amaltas) Leaves

Fabaceae (Papilionaceae) – Lathyrus odoratus

Fabaceae (Papilionaceae)

The members of the family are distributed in plains and hilly areas of temperate regions of both northern and southern hemisphere. Most of the plants are herbs and flower during winter. Most members are cultivated for their economic value as they are source of pulses, fodder, etc. The family comprises of 375 genera

Distinguish Features:

Herb, shrubs or tree, alternate leaves, compound leaflets are modified into tendrils, stipulated, flower hermaphrodite, zygomorphic, perigynous, calyx 5 united, corolla has papilionaceous shape, stamen ten in number diadelphous, ovary is with single carpal, fruit is a pod.

The representative species is Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea).

Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea):

Lathyrusodoratus (Sweet pea) Flower & Leafs

Lathyrusodoratus (Sweet pea) Flower & Leafs

Habit:

Climbing herb, cultivated as ornamental plant.

Root:

Tap root, branched, root nodulated.

Stem:

Herbaceous, weak, hallow, branched, winged, climbing.

Leaf:

Ramal and cauline, petiolate, petiole, winged, stipulate, stipules, folliaceous, imparipinnately compound, upper leaf let modified into tendril.

Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet pea) Leaf Diagram

Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet pea) Leaf Diagram

Leaflets:

Sessile, opposite, reticulate unicostate, oval, entire, acute.

Inflorescence:

Solitary axillary or pendunculate raceme.

Flower:

Bracteate, pedicellate, complete, bisexual, irregular, zygomorphic, slightly perigynous.

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus) Flower

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus) Flower

Calyx:

5 sepals, gamosepalous, campanulate, green, hairy, inferior.

Corolla:

5 petals, polypetalous, Papilionaceous: a large posterior standard or vexillum, two small lateral ones forming wings of alae, the two anterior ones united to form keel or carina, imbricate, inferior.

Androecium:

Ten stamens, diadelphous: nine stamens united to form a tube around the ovary, the 10th posterior stamens free, anthers basifixed, introse, enclose in keel.

Gynoecium:

Monocaepellary, ovary unilocular with numerous ovules and superior, placentation marginal, ovule numerous, Style slightly hairy and bent towards the posterior side of the flower, stigma terminal.

Floral Formula: K (5) C1+2+(2) A (9)+1 G_1

Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet pea) Floral Diagram

Lathyrus odoratus (Sweet pea) Floral Diagram

Rutaceae – Citrus aurantium

Rutaceae (Citrus Family)

The members of the family are worldwide in distribution in warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. The family comprises of 140 genera 1300 species. In Pakistan, the family is represented by Citrus aurantium (Orange), Murraya exotica (kamini), Ruta graveolens (a strong-smelling herb), etc.

Distinguish Features:

Shrubs or small tree, simple alternate leaves, dotted with glands, flower hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous, stamen 10 in number, ovary is multi-chambered.

Citrus aurantium (Orange)

Citrus aurantium (Orange)

The representative species are:

Citrus aurantium (Orange)

Citrus aurantium (Orange):

Habit:

It is a small tree grown in gardens for their fruit rich in vitamin C. The leaves are the source of an essential oil used in confectionery, cosmetics and perfumery.

Root:

Tap root, branched, perennial.

Stem:

Erect, branched, woody, spiny.

Leaf:

Ever green, cauline and ramal, alternate, stipulate, petiolate, winged, flattened, reticulate, unicostate, leaf margins more or less serrate, gland dotted, glaucous.

Citrus aurantium (Orange) Leafs & Flower

Citrus aurantium (Orange) Leafs & Flower

Inflorescence:

Cymose – Solitary axillary or in small raceme.

Flower:

Ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous, hypogynous, white or pinkish.

Calyx:

5 sepals, gamosepalous, sepal’s gland dotted, green, inferior.

Corolla:

5 petals, polypetalous, petals lanceolate, white in color and scented, imbricate, inferior, gland dotted.

Androecium:

Stamens indefinite inserted round a large cup-like or circular disc, polyandelphous, filaments compressed at the base, anthers oblong and basifixed, inferior.

Gynoecium:

Polycarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, multilocular, placentation: axile, stigmas capitate, a nector secreting disc is present below ovary.

Floral Formula: K (5) C5 A (∞) G (5)

Citrus aurantium (Orange) Floral Diagram

Citrus aurantium (Orange) Floral Diagram

Economic Importance of the Family:

Fruits:

The most important genus of the family, the citrus furnishes the various types of “citrus fruit” including oranges, limes, lemons and grape-fruits. So intensively are they grown that the family takes third place in fruit production. Their good peeling and shipping qualities combined with their fine flavor and wholesomeness, ensures their continued prominence in the market. Besides citrus fruits, the genus Feronia yields elephant-apple (Kaith) and Aegle Yields Bael fruits. Zanthoxylum yields Japanese pepper.

Medicine:

Most of the plants are great medicinal value on account of high vitamin contents and mineral salts. In recent years, they have been much exploited for their contents of vitamin C, the anti-scorbutic vitamin. Aegel (Bael) fruit is used as medicine because of the presence of tannic acid, leaves of Murraya koenigii (Mithaneem) are used in flavouring curries, while the dried leaves of Benning-hausenia alblflora are believed to be effective against fleas and moths. Twigs of Zanthoxylum alatum are used as tooth brushes because of their medicinal properties of gums. Citron oil and oil of lemon is extracted from the gland-dotted leaves and peelings of fruits and is used in the presence of mosquito-oil. Citrus limon is frequently grown as a hedge.

Ornamental Plant:

Plants like Murraya, Ruta and Limonia are cultivated in the gardens for their fragrant flowers or foliage.

Source of Perfumes:

The large white fragrant flowers, and the young fruits of some species are used in the perfume manufacturing. From Pilocarpous Jaborandi, oil of Jaborandi is obtained.

Some Important Genera of Family:

Citrus aurantium (orange)

Murraya exotica (kamini)

Ruta graveolens

Citrus acida (khatta)

Citrus medica (lemon)

Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis (China rose)

Malvaceae

The members of the family are worldwide in distribution especially in tropical regions of the world. The family consists 0f 82 genera and 1500 species. Commonly found species of Pakistan are: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (china rose), Malva sylvestris, Alcea rosea (hollyhock), Abutilon (kangi), Gossypium (cotton), etc.

Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis Flowers

Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis Flowers

Distinguish Features:

Herbs of shrubs, simple alternate leaves, flower hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, pentamerous having epicalyx, sepal 5, petal 5, stamen numerous, monoadalphous, carpel numerous, fruit a carcerulus.

The representative species are:

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (china rose).

Alcea rosea (hollyhock – gul-e-khaira).

Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis (China rose – Gurhal, Shoe Flower):

Habit:

An ornamental shrub that flowers in most part of the year. The flowers yield a dye used in manufacture of shoe polishes.

Stem:

Erect, branched, cylindrical, herbaceous above and woody below, mucilaginous.

Leaf:

Cauline and ramal, simple, alternate, stipulate (stipules free lateral), petiolate, ovate, leaf margins serrate, reticulate multicostate.

Inflorescence:

Cymose – Solitary axillary.

Flower:

Ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous, hypogynous.

Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis (China rose)

Hibiscus-Rosa-sinensis (China rose)

Epicalyx:

5 – 7 bracteoles

Calyx:

5 sepals, gamosepalous, green, inferior.

Corolla:

5 petals, polypetalous, petals slightly united below and adnate to staminal tube, red or pink, inferior.

Androecium:

Stamens indefinite, monoadelphous, filaments of the stamens united to form a staminal tube around the style while anthers are free, anthers basifixed, inferior.

Gynoecium:

Pentacarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, pentalocular, placentation: axile, style long ending in five rounded stigmas.

Floral Formula: K5 C5 A∞ G(5)

Floral Diagram of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis

Floral Diagram of Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis

Economic Importance:

The family is of great economic importance and included many very valuable economic plants.

Sources of Cotton wool:

Many species of Gossypium are grown for the hairy covering of the seeds which constitutes the “cotton wool” or “cotton” of the commerce. This is used for the manufacture of cloth, cellulose and other products. Failure of the crop means a tragedy for the poor farmers. Cotton treated with a strong alkali is made stronger and more or less silky and is known as ‘mercerized’ cotton, after Mercer, the discoverer of the method. Besides cotton, the plan furnishes many other products such as cotton seeds, oil, meal etc. Gun Cotton, a powerful explosive, is made by treating the cotton lint with nitric and sulphuric acids and by various subsequent transformations. Stem bark of some plants e.g., hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus subdarifa, Abutilon, Urena, Malachra, etc. Which yield fibers for the purpose of making ropes, mating etc. Albutilon avicennae is cultivated in China, on large scale for “China Jub” obtained at the rate of a ton per acre.

Ornamental Plant:

Many garden annuals like Althaea, Malva, Pavonia and shrubs like Hibiscus spp. And trees like Thespasia are the common ornamental species, highly prized on account of their large, showy flowers. The common hollyhock or Alcea rosea is a familiar garden plant with its large flowers of many colors and its double-flowered varieties.

Sources of Vegetables: Some vegetables yield vegetables e.g., Hibiscus esculentus (lady’s finger) furnish green capsules known as “okra or gumbo” vern. Bhindi, used in vegetables and soups.

Source of Drugs:

Malva sylvestris, yields a drug called Khatmi for horse throat. The roots of Urena rependa are used in hydrophobia.

Source of Wood:

Bombax malabaricum (Simbal), yields wood which is used in the match industry and silk-cotton for stuffing pillows.

Source of Oil:

Cotton seeds are used to extract oil which is hydrogenated to produce “Vanaspati ghee”, while the oil cake is used as fodder and manure.

Source of Color:

Petals of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are used for cough and polishing shoes and coloring other articles. Sinhalese dye yellow with the capsule of Thespasia populnea. The coloring matter in the flower of Alcea rosea var. nigra is used in coloring wines in certain parts of Europe.

Some Important Genera of Family and Flowers:

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China rose)

Malva sylvestris

Alcea rosea (Hollyhock)

Abutilon (Kangi)

Gossypium (Cotton)

Malva parviflora

Malvestrum tricupidatum

Bombax malabaricum (Simbal)

The important genera of family Malvaceae and Flowers are as follow:

Malva sylvestris

Malva sylvestris

Brassica campestris (Yellow mustard – sarson)

Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

The members of the family are cosmopolitan in distribution commonly found in north temperate regions. The family comprises of about 350 Genera and 2500 Species. The most common species found in Pakistan are: Brassica campestris (sarson), Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus (radish), Iberis amara, Senebiera didyma (a weed of cultivation during cold season), etc.

Distinguish Features:

Mostly herbs with simple alternate leaves, flower hypogynous with free sepal and petals, corolla cruciform, stamens six, tetra or didynamous, bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary becoming bilocular by false septum, fruit a siliqua.

Brassica Flowers

Brassica campestris (Yellow mustard – sarson)

Habitat:

Cultivated herb grown during cold season. The plant flowers during spring. Brassica is used as vegetable and its seeds yield oil.

Root:

Tap root, branched.

Stem:

Herbaceous above and woody below, erect, branched, cylindrical, slightly hairy.

Leaf:

Radical, cauline and ramal, simple, sessile, alternate, exstipulate, reticulate, unicostate, upper leaves entire while lower ones lyrate, sessile, hairy.

Mustard Plant Leaf

Mustard Plant Leaf

Inflorescence:

Racemose – A typical raceme below and corymbose above.

Flower:

Ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, tetramerous, hypogynous, yellow in color.

Brassica campestris

Brassica campestris

Calyx:

Four sepals, polysepalous, seplas arranged in two whorls of two each, sepals of inner whorl are longer, slightly petaloid, acute, inferior.

Corolla:

Four petals, polypetalous, each petal consists of a limb and a claw, cruciform, inferior, yellow.

Androecium:

Six stamens, polyandrous, Tetradynamous (4 inner long and 2 outer short), anthers basifixed, four green disk like nectries present at the base, inferior.

Gynoecium:

Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, unilocular but becomes bilocular due to development of a false septum, placentation parietal, stigma bilobed, ovule numerous, stigma bifid.

Fruit:

Siliqua

Floral Formula: K2+2 C4 A2+4 G(2)

Brassica campestris Yellow mustard

Brassica campestris Yellow mustard

Economic Importance:

This family contribute many products of economic value.

Sources of Vegetables:

The leaves, roots and inflorescence of many plants used as vegetables e.g., raddish, turnip, cabbage, etc.

Source of Pot Herb:

Brassica and Lepidium used as pot herb.

Source of Oil:

Seeds of brassica, Eruca sativa (Tara mera) is used as essential oil which is used for cooking.

Source of Medicine:

Sisymbrim irio is used as medicinal plant.

Source of Condiment:

Brassica nigra (Rai), B. alba is used as condiment.

Ornamental Plant:

Wall flower, iberis amara is used as ornamental plant.

Fodder for Cattle:

Leaves of brassica species and oil cake is used as fodder for cattle.

Feed for Chick:

The oil cakes of brassica species are also used in the feed for the chicken.

Some Important Genera of Family:

Brassica Campestris (Sarson)

Brassica napus (Turnip)

Raphanus sativa (Radish)

Lepidium sativum

Sisymbrio irio

Capsella bursa pastoris

Brassica nigra (Kali rai)

Family Ranunculaceae – Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur)

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur)

The family include about 35 genera and 1500 species distributed in temperature and colder regions of the world. The family includes many common plants such as Ranunculus (buttercup), Caltha (marsh marigold), Clematis, Anemone, Thalictrum (mamira), Delphinium (larkspur), Nigella (kala zira) and Aconitum (monkshood).

Distinguishing Features:

Mostly herbs with simple leaves, flower hypogynous with free sepal and petals, stamens indefinite and free, carpels indefinite, apocarpous, fruit an aggregate.

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur)

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur)

Delhinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur):

A cultivated ornamental annual herb that flowers in February-April. The calyx and corolla is characterized by presence of spur.

Root:

Tap root, branched and fibrous.

Stem:

Erect, herbaceous, green, cylindrical, fistular, glabrous, branched.

Leaf:

Simple, Cauline and Ramal, Palmately lobed and much dissected, Sessile, Exstipulate, Reticulate unicostate, hairy.

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur) Leafs

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur) Leafs

Inflorescence:

Racemose – A typical raceme.

Flower:

Pedicellate, Bracteate, Bracteolate (two bracteoles), Bisexual, Complete, Zygomorphic, Hypogynous, Violet in color.

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur) Flower

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur) Flower

Calyx:

5 Sepals, Polysepalous, Petaloid, Posterior sepal forms a long spur, inferior.

Corolla:

4 Petals, Gamopetalous, the two posterior petals small and extends into a long spur which enters the spur formed by the sepal and the remaining two lobes are larger in size and enclose the essential organs, Blue or violet color.

Androecium:

Stamens, indefinite, Stamens arranged spirally in five groups of three stamens each alternating with the petals, Polyandrous, Filaments flattened at base, Anthers basifixed.

Gynoecium:

Monocarpellary, Ovary superior and unilocular, Placentation: marginal.

Fruit:

Follicle

Floral Formula: K5 C5 A∞ G1

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur) Floral Diagram

Delphinium ajacis (Rocket Larkspur) Floral Diagram

Economic Importance:

The family of some economic importance.

Ornamental Plants: Most of the plants e.g., Ranunculus, Anemone, Delphinium, Caltha, Nigella and Clematis are cultivated as ornamental plants in gardens for their beautiful flower.

Poisonous Plants: Nearly all species produce an acrid juice which is sometimes extremely poisonous.

Medicinal Plants: The root of some plants yield medicinal drugs e.g., Aconitum heterpohyllum (Atis) yields the alkaloid aconitina while Thallictrum yields “mamira” used in ophthalmia.

Condiments: Some are used as condiments, e.g., seeds of Nigella are used as condiments and as a drug.

Some Genera of Family:

Ranunculus muricatus (Buttercup).

Nigella sativa (Kala zera).

Delphinium ajacis (lark spur).

Ranunculus scleratus (Atis).

Anemone rivularia (Wind flower).

Aconitum heterpohyllum (Atis).