Following are the important algae short questions for paper and exams. Students can prepare these important algae short questions for their tests and exams.
Algae Short Questions
- What are algae? Where are they found?
Ans: Algae are aquatic plants. They are both freshwater and marine. Freshwater includes ponds, streams, moist rocks and bark of trees. Marine forms are present from sea shore to depth up to 100 meters.
- What are coenobia? In which is it found?
Ans: Some colonies have definite number of cells. Such colonies are called coenobia. It is found in Volvox.
- What are Heterotrichous, Pseudoparenchymatous and Coenocytic filaments?
Ans: The filament with prostate (horizontal) and vertical system are called heterotrichous. Sometimes, filaments are loosely grouped to from pseudoparenchymatous body. The filaments without cross walls are called coenocytic filaments.
- Name some accessory pigments?
Ans: Carotene, Xanthophyll, Fucoxanthin, myxozanthin.
- What are Phycobilins?
Ans: These are phycocyanin (blue) and phycoerythrin (red).
- What are axonemes, basal bodies and paradesomes?
Ans: Each flagellum is composed of axial filaments called axonemes. Axonemes are surrounded by sheath, Flagellum arises from basal bodies. Basal bodies are connected with each other by transverse fibers called paradesmose.
- What are Monophasic Haploid?
Ans: It is a primitive life cycle. In this case, vegetative plant body remains haploid. Gametes are produced by mitosis. Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote. First division in zygote is meiosis. It forms haploid vegetative body. Thus, zygote is the only diploid stage in such cycles.
- What are diphasic life cycle?
Ans: In this case, two types of generation are produced: gametophyte and sporophyte. Both generations alternate with each other. If both generations have similar vegetative structure, then they are called isomorphic. If they have different structures, then they are called heteromorphic.
- What is pallmella stage?
Ans: Sometimes, spores remain embedded in mucilaginous matrix. Thus, a rounded body is formed with many spores. This condition is called Palmella stage.
- Differentiate between zoospore and aplanospore?
Ans: Zoospores: Motile spores are called zoospores. The non-motile spores are called aplanospore.
- Differentiate between isogamy and anisogamy?
Ans: Isogamy: In this case, gametes have similar size and form. Their fusion is called isogamy. Anisogamy: In this case, gametes have similar structures and form but different sizes. The smaller active gamete is called male gamete. The larger less active is called female gamete. They fuse to for zygospore.
- Differentiate between Homothallic and Heterothallic?
Ans: In case of Homothallic, gametes of the same plant can fuse with each other. In case of heterothallic, gametes of different plants fuse with each other.
- What are gonidia in Volvox?
Ans: Only certain cells at the posterior end of the colony take part in the asexual reproduction. The size of these cells increases. They become ten times larger. These cells are called gonidia. Gonidia develop numerous pyrenoids. There are 5 – 20 gonidia in each colony. They produce daughter colony within the parent colony. Algae Short Questions
- Give mechanism of fertilization in Volvox?
Ans: An aperture is produced in the wall of oogonium. Antherozoids enter into oogonium through this pore. Only one antherozoid unites with the egg and zygote is formed. Zygote secretes a thick wall and become oospore. The wall of oospore is three layered. Oospore produces a large amount of heamotochrome. So, its color becomes orange red.
- Give different methods of asexual reproduction in chara?
Ans: Amylum stars: These are star shaped aggregates of cells. They are developed at the lower nodes.
Bulbills: These are formed at the rhizoids.
Protonemal outgrowth: These are also used for vegetative propagules.
- Give occurrence of chara?
Ans: Chara is fresh water algae. It is submerged in ponds. It is attached to the muddy or sandy bottom by rhizoids. Sometimes, it grows deep, underground. Mature plant is covered with calcium carbonate. Therefore, Chara is also known as stoneworts.
- What are male and female reproductive organs in Chara?
Ans: Sexual reproduction is oogmnous in Chara. Sex organs are antheridia and archegonia. They are enclosed by multicellular sheath. This sheath forms male and female fructification. The male fructification is called globule. The female fructification is called nucule.
- Give structure of nucule of chara?
Ans: Nucule is a female fructification. It is composed of pedicel cell. Central and stalk cells me present on the pedicel cells. Oogoniujn is attached to the stalk cell. Oogonium contains single large oosphere. Oogonium is covered by tube cells. These tube cells are elongated and spirally twisted. A crown of five cells is present at the top oogoniums It is called corona.
- Give general structure of Vaucheria?
Ans: The filament is cylindrical. The filament is attached to the substratum by hepteron. Hepteron is colorless branched rhizoid like structure. Filament increases in length by apical growth. Algae Short Questions
- Give structure of valves of diatoms?
Ans: The cell wall of diatoms is composed of pectic substance. Silica is impregnated in it. Therefore, their wall becomes very hard. Their wall is composed of two halves called valves. These halves overlap like Petridish. The margins of the two valves are covered by a connecting band called cingulum. The two valves with their inner protoplasts are called frustule. The outer larger valve is called epitheca. The smaller inner valve is called hypotheca.
- What are cingulum and frustule?
Ans: The margins of the two valves are covered by a connecting band called cingulum. The two valves with their inner protoplasts are called frustule.
- Differentiate between two symmetries of diatoms?
Ans: Radially symmetrical (Centrales): In this case, markings are arranged in radially symmetrical pattern. The diatoms are circular in shape. The group of such diatoms is called Centrales.
Bilaterally symmetrical (Pennales): The have bilaterally symmetrical thickenings. These diatoms are elongated or boat shaped. The group of such diatoms is called pennales.
- Differentiate between valve view and girdle view?
Ans: The frustule has two views. The surface view is called valve view and band view is called girdle view.
- Give occurrence of (alga) algae Batrachospermum?
Ans: Batrachospermum is fresh water alga. It is found in clear, cool and running streams. Deep water plants are dark violet or reddish in color. But the shallow water species are olive green. The intensity of light changes the color of pigments. The thallus is attached to the substratum.
- What is Carpogonia? Give its structure?
Ans: The female reproductive organ is carpogonia. Carpogonia are unicellular. It consists of an elongated cell present at the base. The upper larger portion is called trichogyne. The lower globular portion is called mirophore. The branch bearing the carpogonium is called ascocarp. Ascocarp consists of four cells. The terminal cell form carpogonium.
- What is chantransia stage? How is it formed?
Ans: Carpospore separates from the filaments and secretes cell wall It becomes a pod of parenchymatous tissues. Erect braches arise from this pad of tissues. These filaments form the juvenile or chantransia stage. Algae Short Questions
- What are trichoblasts? Give their function?
Ans: Trichoblasts: The tips of branches are monosiphonous. So, these are tapering. These branches are fine hair like. So, these are called trichoblasts. Trichoblasts are borne in spiral manner on the axis. The cells of the trichoblasts are uninucleate and colorless.
- What is gametophyte generation in Polysiphonia?
Ans: The gametophyte plants produce gametes. The male gametes (spermatia) and female gametes (oosphere) fuse to form diploid nucleus. It is the beginning of the sporophytic stage.