Author Archives: I am hassan

Biochemistry of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

Biochemistry of Biological Nitrogen Fixation  Nitrogen fixing bacteria that occur in association with higher plants, especially with those of family Leguminaceae (fabaceae), are termed as symbionts. The symbiotic association of nitrogen-fixing bacteria with plants roots generally occurs in multicellular structures called nodules. The best characterized symbiotic association involving nodules is one occurring on roots of leguminous plants. About 200 legume ...

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Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Metabolism Nutrient Assimilation Higher plants are autotrophic organisms that can synthesize all of their molecular components from inorganic nutrients from the local environment. The mineral nutrients taken up by plants are converted into carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. It is called nutrient assimilation. Nitrogen Assimilation Nitrogen is a key element in many of the compounds present in the plants. ...

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Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation – ATP Synthesis Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in mitochondria here transfer of electrons is coupled with ATP formation from ADP and Pi. It is driven by the strong thermodynamics tendency of O2 to become reduced, therefore, called oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for only a small fraction of ATP generated in living cells of higher plants. The number of ...

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Electron Transport Chain

Respiratory Chain When NADH2 and FADH2 are produced in the Krebs cycle or in glycolysis are oxidized, ATP is produced. The electrons are transferred via several intermediate compounds before water is made. These electron carriers constitute electron transport system or respiratory chain. Components of Electron Transport System An electron system consists of: Cytochromes, four of the b type and two ...

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krebs cycle

Krebs Cycle Hans A. Krebs first proposed a series of breakdown of pyruvate in the presence of oxygen, therefore the cycle is called Krebs Cycle. The cycle is also called citric acid cycle because formation of an important intermediate citric acid. krebs cycle takes place in the matrix of mitochondria. Entry of Pyruvate in to Mitochondria The pyruvate produced in the ...

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What Are Plastids

Plastids The membranous bound and pigment containing bodies present in the cell are called plastids. Plastids were Discovered by Schimper in 1883. Plastids are present only in plant cells and some algae. Plastids are semi-autonomous bodies of cells. They contain their own DNA and ribosome. So, they are self-replicating organelles. The newly form plastid is called protoplastid. It then changes into ...

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Respiration In Plants

Respiration Tissue Respiration Respiration is a series of enzyme controlled oxidation-reduction reactions during which carbohydrates (respiratory substrate) produced during photosynthesis are oxidized to carbon dioxide and oxygen is reduced to water. Energy is released as a result of bond by bond breakage of respiratory substrate. Much of this energy is stored into molecules of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The process is ...

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Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Light And Photosynthesis Light is an important factor as photosynthesis does not take place in dark. When considering effect of light on photosynthesis it is important to distinguish between the effects of light intensity and light quality. Light Quality The light consists of rays of different wavelengths. The study of absorption spectrum revealed that only red and blue ...

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Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

CAM Plants Dark Fixation of carbon Dioxide Many species living in arid climates have thick leaves and relatively low surface-to-volume ratio and have low transpiration rates. Their cells have large central vacuoles with a thin layer of cytoplasm around them. These plants are called succulents. Another characteristic feature of these plants is that their stomata opens at night and fix ...

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Calvin Cycle

Calvin Benson Cycle Dark reaction involves conversion of carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. It occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast and involves many reactions, each catalyzed by a different enzyme. The dark reactions require the products of light step (ATP and NADPH2), but does not itself requires light. This is why it is referred to as dark reaction. C-3 Plants ...

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