Biology Chapter 10 Kingdom Animalia MCQs Questions For NTS MCAT NUST
In our recent article, we have biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia MCQs for preparation of NTS, Nust etc. Students can prepare these entry test questions for their upcoming exams in future. The biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia MCQs consist of all previous and important questions.
Kingdom Animalia includes all the animals.
The name animalia is derived from Latin word anima which means breath or soul.
Kingdom Animalia consists of all animals which are multicellular, diploid, eukaryotic, ingestive, heterotrophs and develop from two different haploid gametes (a large egg and smaller sperm).
Kingdom Animalia is divided into two subkingdoms:
- Subkingdom Parazoa
In these animals there is no tissue organization and have no organs. They have indeterminate (indefinite) shape and are asymmetrical. These are the simplest animals. Phylum Porifera is included in this subkingdom.
- Subkingdom Eumetazoa
In these animals the tissues are organized into organs and organ systems.
Most of the phyla of kingdom Animalia (about 29) belong to subkingdom Eumatazoa. These phyla are other than porifera. Grade Radiata and Grade Bilatera are included in this subkingdom.
GRADE RADIATA/DIPLOBLASTIC ORGANISATION
These animals are simplest of Eumetazoa and are diploblastic.
- Systematic Position: Diploblastic animals belong to division radiata (subkingdom Eumatazoa).
- Body: The body wall of these animals consists of two layers of cells, outer ectoderm and inner
- Endoderm: There is a jelly like mesenchyme or mesogloea which in most cases is non-cellular.
- Less Specialisation: These animals show lesser specialisation and they do not form specialised organs.
- Symmetry: These animals have radial symmetry. In radial symmetry the parts of the body are arranged around a central axis in such a way that any plane passing through the central axis divides the animal into two equal halves.
- The cylindrical body of a sea-anemone can be cut in two equal halves vertically in any plane. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- Digestive System: There is only one cavity in the body called gastrovascular cavity which has only mouth. Through this mouth the food and water enters and also the wastes are removed along with water. This is known as sac like digestive system.
- Transportation: A special transport system is absent. Most substances are distributed within the body by the process of diffusion.
- Nervous System: Central nervous system is absent. However a network of neurons is present.
- Animals in this Group: Animals included in phylum Cnidaria (coelenterata) are diploblastic.
GRADE BILATERIA/TRIPLOBLASTIC ORGANISATION
- These animals have bilateral symmetry. In bilateral symmetry an animal can be divided into two equal parts by an imaginary line only in one plane.
- In these animals the right side is approximately equal to the left side and there is a distinct anterior and a posterior end. The head is present at the anterior end. They also have a dorsal and a ventral surface.
- All the animals included in grade Bilateria are triploblastic. These may be acoelomate, pseudocoelomate or coelomate.
- Acoelomata: The animals without coelom (body cavity) are called Acoelomata.
Pseudocoelomata: The animals with a false coelom (pseudocoele) are called Pseudocoelomata.
Coelomata: The animals with a true coelom are called Coelomata.
- The body wall of these animals is made of three layers which are ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
- In most tribloblastic animals, during embryonic, development, these layers form following structures:
- The ectoderm forms integumentary and nervous system.
- The mesoderm forms muscular, skeletal and reproductive systems.
- The endoderm forms the lining of digestive tract and the glands of digestive system (such as liver and pancreas).
- Specialisation: The cells of these animals show greater degree of specialisation. These have specialised organs and organ systems.
- Symmetry: These animals have bilateral symmetry.
- Digestive System: The digestive system is mostly of tube type. In tube type digestive system the mouth is at the anterior end while the anus is at the posterior end.
- Transportation: Special transport system i.e. blood vascular system is present in most of the cases.
- Nervous System: Central nervous system is present.
- Types of Triploblastic Animals: Triploblastic animals may be acoelomate, pseudocoelomate or coelomate.
- The animals belonging to phyla, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata and Chordata are included in grade bilateria.
- The larvae of echinoderms have bilateral symmetry. However, the adult Echinoderms have secondarily developed radial symmetry, due to their special mode of life.
ACOELOMATA, PSEUDOCOELOMATA & COELOMATA
The animals without coelom (body cavity) are called Acoelomata (Phylum Platyhelminthes). It has following characters:
- Mesenchyma: The mesoderm forms a loose, cellular tissue called mesenchyma or parenchyma which fills the space between the ectoderm and the endoderm.
- Mesoderm also forms a packing around the internal organs to support and protect them.
- The Gut: The gut is sac-type.
- Transportation: There is no special transport system and most substances are distributed within the body by the process of diffusion.
- Excretory System: This system consists of flame cells, excretory ducts and excretory pores. It is for the transport of excretory products.
- Nervous System: The nervous system is well developed.
- The animals with a false coelom (pseudocoele) are called Pseudocoelomata (Phylum Aschelminthes/Nematoda).
- In these animals the space between the body wall and the digestive tube is called pseudocoelom (false body cavity),
- Pseudocoelom is not homologous to true coelom because it is not lined by coelomic epithelium. Similarly, it has no relation with the reproductive and excretory organs.
- Pseudocoelom develops from the blastocoel of the embryo and is bounded externally by the muscles and internally by the cuticle of the intestine. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
The animals with a true coelom (body cavity) are called Coelomata. The animals from annelids to chordates are included. These animals have following characters:
- Coelom: These animals have coelom. Coelom is a cavity between the body wall and the alimentary canal and is lined by mesoderm. The mesoderm splits into:
Outer which parietal layer the body wall and.
The visceral layer which covers the alimentary canal.
The cavity between both layers is the true coelom. It is filled with fluid called coelomic fluid.
- Well Developed Systems: The gut is more complex.
The Neuro-sensory system is well developed and centralized.
They have a well-developed circulatory system.
A well-developed excretory system not only removes nitrogenous wastes but also osmoregulatory in function.
Respiratory and reproductive systems are also well developed.
The subkingdom parazoa includes only one Phylum which is the phylum porifera.
Rearrangement Reorganization and Regeneration
- If sponge cells are separated, they can rearrange and reorganize. Some sponges have regenerative ability.
- The capacity of sponges to regenerate is for restoration of damaged or lost parts & also for complete regeneration of an adult from fragments or even single cells.
- Sponge cells may be separated by mechanical methods (e.g., squeezing a piece of sponge through fine silk cloth) or by chemical methods (e.g., elimination of calcium and magnesium from seawater).
- Dissociated cells settle, migrate, and form active aggregates in which the archaeocytes play an important role.
- In order for small aggregates of cells to form larger aggregates, the cells are attached to a surface, where they flatten and develop an envelope of special cells (pinacocytes); this is called the diamorph stage.
- Reconstitution of the choanocyte chambers and of the canal system follow soon afterward, resulting in a young sponge that is functional and able to grow.
- It is generally believed that the reconstitution process is not comparable with embryonic development, because the various types of dissociated cells participate in the formation of the new sponge. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- During unfavorable conditions, sponges are reduced to small fragments that may consist only of masses of archaeocytes covered by layers of pinacocytes. A complete sponge forms from these fragments when favourable conditions return.
- The regenerative abilities of sponges, their lack of a central coordinating organ (brain), and the peculiar migratory ability of cells within the organisms combine to make it somewhat difficult to define the individuality of a sponge. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- Sycon: Typical marine sponge.
- Leucoselenia: A sponge that consists of a group of erect tubes.
- Euplectella: It is beautiful and delicate sponge made up of glassy framework. It is commonly called Venus flower basket.
- Spongilla: It is freshwater sponge.
- Importance: Many artificial sponges have been made from synthetic material. However the natural sponges are still in demand.
- The best commercial sponges are found in the warm waters of Mediterranean Sea. Some uses are as follows:
- The skeleton of sponges have long been used for washing and bathing.
- They have great capacity to absorb water. Therefore they are used in surgical operations for absorbing fluids and blood.
- They are also used for sound absorption in the buildings.
- Many colonial coelenterates (such as corals) produce a hard exoskeleton formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
- These polyps are covered by stony cups due to hardening of their secretions.
- It is secreted by epidermal cells that take lime from sea water.
- From the mouth of the stony cup a polyp can pass out its tentacles for feeding and withdraw it when not feeding.
- The stony network or mass of such Coelenterates are called Corals.
- The skeleton of corals is responsible for formation of small coral islands or large coral reefs.
- Most such Coelenterates are colonial.
- Living polyps are found on the surface layer of corals. However on the lower side and at the base are present masses of dead stony structures called Coral reefs. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- Coral reefs are important habitats. They are thought to support more than I million aquatic species. This includes not only several hundred species of coral, but thousands of fish and invertebrate species such as sponges, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, sea anemones; bryozoans, worms, sea stars and sea urchins, octopuses, squid, snails and nudibranchs.
- It is estimated that nearly one-quarter of the world’s marine species get shelter and food from coral reefs.
- Coral reefs are found in the coastal waters of Florida, West Indies, East Coast of Africa, Australia and Island of Coral Sea.
PHYLUM: PLATYHELMINTHES – THE FLATWORMS
- Habitat: A few species are free living and found in freshwater. For example Dugesia (planaria).
- Many are parasites (mostly endoparasites). The endoparasite lives inside the host. The most common examples are:
- Taenia solium (tapeworm), Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) and Schistosoma (blood fluke).
The parasites are more common in tropics. Some of these cause diseases in humans,
- Reproduction: They reproduce both by sexual and asexual means. Asexual reproduction is by fission in which the animal constricts in the middle into two pieces. Each piece regenerates the missing part.
- The sexually reproducing species are hermaphrodite (both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same individual).
- Development: Development is direct. Sometimes larval form is present.
- Dugesig (Planaria): A free-living flatworm with a ciliated outer surface,
- Fasciola (Liver Fluke): It is an endoparasite in sheep and rarely in human beings. It attaches to the host tissue by suckers. It completes its life cycle in two hosts: (i) A snail (ii) Sheep or man (in the bile duct).
Taenia (Tape Worm)
- It is an endoparasite that completes its life cycle in two hosts: (i) Humans (ii) Cattle/pig
- The intermediate host is pig or cattle. The body is ribbon-like and divided into segments called proglottids which contain sex organs.
- The segments (proglottids) continue to break off and are passed out from the intestine along with faeces.
- Let us discuss infestation and disinfestations of tape worm. The relationship, between the host and parasite is a delicate one, since each modifies the activities and functions of the other.
- The zygote begins to develop while it is still inside the uterus of female in Taenia (tape worm),
- The last segments (or proglottids) contain completely developed embryo in their uteri,
- The fully mature proglottids break off from the body and come out of the body of man with faeces (undigested waste). Each proglottid may contain up to 80,000 eggs,
- The embryo inside the egg is round in shape and has six chitinous hooks. It shows limited movement of contraction. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- For further development it must reach_ a second host which may be a cow (or pig).
- If the embryos are swallowed by the cow (or pig), they bore their way and reach the voluntary muscles. Here they remain embedded. Tape worm in the intermediate host is the bladder worm.
- If an improperly cooked beef is eaten by a person, the parasite (which has not been killed) begins to develop further in the intestine of man. Development of the tapeworm in encysted meat is stimulated by the gastric juices of the host. The adults then attach themselves to the intestinal tract (small intestine) of their host by the scolex and absorb partially digested food through their body wall.
- Once the parasite has entered the intestine of man it is difficult to remove completely.
- Care and Control: The beef should be cooked properly before eating it. As a result there is no chance of the parasite entering the digestive system. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- Medicine: If the parasite has entered then certain medicines are taken to remove it.
- Its complete removal is necessarily because if only head remains inside the intestine it can grow into new tape-worm once again.
- Anema: Besides treatment with drugs, physicians also give anema to the patient, to fully remove the parasite.
ADAPTATIONS FOR PARASITIC MODE OF LIFE
- The Platyhelminthes have adapted following characters for parasitic mode of life:
- Cuticle: The epidermis is absent and resistant cuticle is formed for protection.
- Adhesive Organs: They have developed adhesive organs (such as suckers and hooks) for attachment to the host. biology chapter 10 kingdom animalia mcqs
- Digestive System: The digestive system is simple due to increased dependence on host.
- Muscular and Nervous System: There is degeneration of muscular system and nervous system,
- Reproductive Systems: The reproductive systems are complicated and the ova are produced in a large number. In this way the continuity of the species is ensured,
- Life Cycle: The complex life cycle and the presence of more than one host during the life cycle increases the chances of survival of the parasite.