Category: Ecology

Factors Affecting Soil Erosion

Factors Affecting Soil Erosion Th major factor affecting soil erosion are climate, soil properties, topography, vegetation, animals, etc. Climate Precipitation (rainfall and snowfall), wind velocity, temperature and humidity are climatic factors that affect the soil erosion. Rainfall is the most forceful factor causing soil erosion through splash and surface runoff. In terms of temperature the [Continue]

Wind Erosion

Wind Erosion The removal and carrying away of soil particles b wind is wind erosion or soil blowing. It is essentially a dry weather phenomenon and is accelerated wherever the soil is loose and dry. Wind erosion mainly occurs near the ground and is influenced directly by wind velocity. Transportation of Soil Particles The soil [Continue]

Water Erosion Control

Mechanical Methods of Water Erosion Control Mechanical protection against soil erosion is expensive, time consuming and deserve careful thought and planning. However, it plays a very vital role in controlling and preventing soil erosion on agricultural lands. They are adopted to supplement biological methods. The mechanical measures include diversions, terraces, bunding, sub-soiling, basin listing and [Continue]

Control of Water Erosion

Control of Water Erosion Water erosion can be minimized by preventing the detachment and the transport of soil particles. A cover of vegetation and soil granulation helps to prevent the detachment of soil particles. The transportation of soil particles can be effectively minimized by artificial mechanical structures to control the effects of runoff. Biological Methods [Continue]

Soil Erosion Types

Soil Erosion Methods of Control and Conservation Erosion literally means weathering away. It refers to “removal of fertile soil surfaces from their original place and carrying away by agencies such as wind, water, ice or gravity to some other places”. The erosion consists of detachment of soil particles from the surface and transportation. Water and [Continue]

Effects of Salt-Affected Soils on Plants Growth

Effects of Salt-Affected Soils on Plants Growth General symptoms of salinity in plants are retarded growth and smaller Plants fewer and smaller leaves. Stunted leaves are generally darker green than normal some plants leaf succulence increases. The other common effects are: Osmotic Effect Increase in salinity results in reduction of the amount of water available [Continue]

Soil Salinity

Soil Salinity Soil salinity refers to presence of salts in root zone of the soil. It adversely affects the growth of plants. General symptoms of salinity in plants are retarded growth and plants with fewer and smaller leaves that are darker green than normal leaves. Salt-Affected Soils The soils in which concentration of salts is [Continue]

Water Logging

Water Logging The soils whose surface layers are saturated with water are termed waterlogged soils and the phenomenon of rise of water table to soil surface is termed water logging. Causes of Water Logging The followings are the causes of waterlogging in Pakistan: Seepage of Water from Canal System The main source of waterlogging in [Continue]

Soils of Pakistan

Soils of Pakistan The soils in Pakistan are affected by arid climate, therefore belong to dry group, rich in basic having a high calcium carbonate content and poor in nitrogenous matter. They vary in color from reddish brown in north to red or gray in south. The soils at the foot of the mountains are [Continue]

Soil Organisms & Their Importance

Soil Organisms & Their Importance Plants and animal residues deposited on the surface of the soil are decomposed by organisms (flora and fauns) present in the soil. These organisms are called soil organisms. This decomposition results in release of carbon dioxide, water, essential elements of humus. Most of the soil organisms belong to the plant [Continue]