Category: Ecology

Organic Matter of Soil & Humus

Organic Matter of Soil & Humus All materials of plant, animal, or microbial origin, produced in the soil or added to it are termed as soil organic matter. The soils whose properties are dominated by organic matter are called organic soils. The primary source of soil organic matter is plant tissue. The fallen branches, twigs, [Continue]

Structure of Soil

Structure of Soil The grouping or arrangement of soil particles is called soil structure. The smaller soil particles aggregate and colloids form coatings over these larger grains, binding them together into structural units of various sizes called peds or fragments, except for soils where the texture is uniformly coarse. Soil structure describes arrangement of the [Continue]

Texture of Soil

Texture of Soil To study the mineral particles of a soil, scientists separate them into groups according to their size. These groups are called soil separates or fractions. The relative proportions of different sized Soil separates are called soil texture. Soil Separates A number of different classifications have been proposed to determine the particle size [Continue]


Weathering The process in which massive consolidated rocks are broken down into fine, smaller particles is termed weathering. It is combination of destruction and synthesis processes. The rocks are first broken into smaller rocks and then into minerals which they are composed (primary minerals) such as feldspars. The rock fragments and minerals are attacked by [Continue]

Soil Factor – Parent Material

Soil Factor – Parent Material The unconsolidated mass from the soils are formed is the parent material. It constitutes the basic mineral framework of most soils and consists of small fragments of inorganic matter which has been derived from solid rock by mechanical or chemical types of weathering, Depending on the mode of origin, most [Continue]


Soil Factor The word soil is derived from Latin solum meaning soil or land, Soil is the upper and biochemically weathered portion of the regolith. Or Soil is a collection of natural bodies of Earth that is composed of mineral organic matter and is capable of supporting plant growth. Or Soil is the weathered outer [Continue]

Ecology – Level of Organizations

Ecology – Level of Organizations Ecology can be considered on a wide scale, moving from an individual the entire global ecosystem. However, four identifiable sub-divisions of scale are of interest. These are: organisms (individuals), populations, communities and ecosystems. At each level the subject of interest to ecologist’s changes. Organism Organism refers to any living individual, [Continue]


Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. The environment includes both abiotic factors: such as temperature, light, water, wind, soil and nutrients; and biotic factors: the other living organisms. The interactions may be competition, predation, parasitism and cooperation. The work ecology was first used by a German Ernst [Continue]

Absorption of Minerals

Factors Necessary for Mineral Absorption Following are the plant factors and environmental factors contribute to the effective mineral absorption. Plant Root System The water and mineral elements are present in the soils. To absorb both water and mineral elements from the soil depends upon their capacity to develop an extensive root system. Plant roots grow [Continue]

Hydrologic Cycle

Water is basic for all the life forms. Around 80% of water is available in a living cell.– It covers around 73% of surface of the earth as lakes, waterways, seas. There is a nonstop cycling of water amongst biotic and abiotic segments of biological community and the environment. This spinning happens through precipitation and [Continue]