Ecology

Water Erosion Control

Mechanical Methods of Water Erosion Control Mechanical protection against soil erosion is expensive, time consuming and deserve careful thought and planning. However, it plays a very vital role in controlling and preventing soil erosion on agricultural lands. They are adopted to supplement biological methods. The mechanical measures include diversions, terraces, bunding, sub-soiling, basin listing and waterways. Diversion Drains A diversion ...

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Control of Water Erosion

Control of Water Erosion Water erosion can be minimized by preventing the detachment and the transport of soil particles. A cover of vegetation and soil granulation helps to prevent the detachment of soil particles. The transportation of soil particles can be effectively minimized by artificial mechanical structures to control the effects of runoff. Biological Methods of Water Erosion Control Control ...

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Soil Erosion Types

Soil Erosion Methods of Control and Conservation Erosion literally means weathering away. It refers to “removal of fertile soil surfaces from their original place and carrying away by agencies such as wind, water, ice or gravity to some other places”. The erosion consists of detachment of soil particles from the surface and transportation. Water and wind are the major factors ...

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Effects of Salt-Affected Soils on Plants Growth

Effects of Salt-Affected Soils on Plants Growth General symptoms of salinity in plants are retarded growth and smaller Plants fewer and smaller leaves. Stunted leaves are generally darker green than normal some plants leaf succulence increases. The other common effects are: Osmotic Effect Increase in salinity results in reduction of the amount of water available to the waté This results ...

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Soil Salinity

Soil Salinity Soil salinity refers to presence of salts in root zone of the soil. It adversely affects the growth of plants. General symptoms of salinity in plants are retarded growth and plants with fewer and smaller leaves that are darker green than normal leaves. Salt-Affected Soils The soils in which concentration of salts is very high are called salt-affected ...

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Water Logging

Water Logging The soils whose surface layers are saturated with water are termed waterlogged soils and the phenomenon of rise of water table to soil surface is termed water logging. Causes of Water Logging The followings are the causes of waterlogging in Pakistan: Seepage of Water from Canal System The main source of waterlogging in Pakistan is seepage of water ...

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Soils of Pakistan

Soils of Pakistan The soils in Pakistan are affected by arid climate, therefore belong to dry group, rich in basic having a high calcium carbonate content and poor in nitrogenous matter. They vary in color from reddish brown in north to red or gray in south. The soils at the foot of the mountains are sandy but become finer towards ...

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Soil Organisms & Their Importance

Soil Organisms & Their Importance Plants and animal residues deposited on the surface of the soil are decomposed by organisms (flora and fauns) present in the soil. These organisms are called soil organisms. This decomposition results in release of carbon dioxide, water, essential elements of humus. Most of the soil organisms belong to the plant life (flora) which includes soil ...

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Organic Matter of Soil & Humus

Organic Matter of Soil & Humus All materials of plant, animal, or microbial origin, produced in the soil or added to it are termed as soil organic matter. The soils whose properties are dominated by organic matter are called organic soils. The primary source of soil organic matter is plant tissue. The fallen branches, twigs, leaves and roots of trees, ...

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Structure of Soil

Structure of Soil The grouping or arrangement of soil particles is called soil structure. The smaller soil particles aggregate and colloids form coatings over these larger grains, binding them together into structural units of various sizes called peds or fragments, except for soils where the texture is uniformly coarse. Soil structure describes arrangement of the primary soil separates (sand. silt ...

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