Category: Fungus


Occurrence of fungi Fungi are found in wide variety of habitats. These habitats are water, soil, dead and decaying organic matter. Fungi are heterotrophic. The./ cannot synthesize their food. Therefore, they get their food from different sources. I. 3aprophytes: These fungi get their food from dead organic matter. They secretes enzyme in their substratum. These [Continue]


Occurrence Minor is a genus of about 3000 species of moulds. . It is a common saprophytic fungus. It grows on dead organic materit I. It is commonly found in soil, digestive systems,plant surfaces,and rotten vegetable matter. In laboratory we can culture this fungus by keeping moist bread under bell jar for two or three [Continue]


Occurrence It is common in soil water. Its various species live as saprophyte. Some of them live on decaying plant as parasites. The parasitic stage attacks the roots and the seedlings. It causes disease Damping-off. Pyd him debaryanum causes this disease. Some species are parasitic on some freshwater algae. General structure The mycelium of Pythium [Continue]


Occurrence Penicillium is a common mold. It is found on different substrata. It is most commonly found on citrus and other fruits. It is also found on f000stuffs, jellies, old leather, and paper and in the soil. Pencillium is used for the production of certain acids like fumaric, citric, oxalic. and Gallic acids. It is [Continue]


YEAST Yeast are common in soil and on decay fruits. Yeasts are found in ails substrates which are rich in sugary substance. Yeast has great industrial importance. They are used in fermentation of sugar into alcohol. Yeasts are extensively used in bakeries and breweries. S’acc haromyces cerevisiae is commonly used yeast. Yeats extract is commercially [Continue]


Occurrence AItemaria is a very common saprophytic fungus. It decomposes the dead part of the plants. A few species of Altemaria can attack on living tissues. Alternaria causes diseases in plants like early blight of potatoes and boll rots of cotton Vegetative structure The body of Alternaria is composed of branched, septate by Mae. Its [Continue]


Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Ascomvcota Class: Leotionmetes Subclass: Leotiomvcetidae Order: Erysinhales Family: Ervsimhaceae Genus: Phyllactinia Occurrence There are number of species of genus Phyllactinia. P. dalbergiae is commonest species found growing on the leaves of Dalbergia sissou (shnharn). The specimens can be collected in abundance during the winter on the fallen leaves of shisham. [Continue]


USTILAGO (Smut) Occurrence Usti.ago is parasite on the grasses like wheat. It is commonly called smut. It attacks on the ovaries of grasses. Sometimes, it completely destoy the whole ears (wheat) and produces black powdery mass of spores. Ustilago tritici is common in Pakistan. It attacks on wheat. Usti’ago avenae attacks on oat. Ustilago nada [Continue]


Occurrence Puccinia is large genus. It has several obligatory parasitic species.tritici is a parasite of wheat. It completes its life cycle in two different hosts: wheat and barely. Thus it is hetcrocious rust. It infects the stem of wheat and causes black or stem rust.   Life cycle The life cycle of Puccina is divided [Continue]

Agaricus Campestris

The members of this genus are commonly called mushrooms. Mushrooms grow on soil. They are abundantly found on soil with decry plant material and moisture. The specie ,4garietts campsites is very common. This species is edible. It is cult hated for commercial purposes. General structure The mature plant body is composed of two parts: vegetative [Continue]