Genetics

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

Darwin formulated his ideas of theory of evolution by natural selection by 1844. There are following points of his theory of evolution by natural selection on the basis of evolution. Evolution The change in the heritable traits of a population over successive generations, as determined by shifts in the allele frequencies of genes is called evolution. All contemporary organisms are ...

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Genetic Conservation Intentional Introduction

Genetic conservation is a science that aims to apply genetic methods to deal with the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biodiversity. Researchers involved in conservation genetics come from a variety of fields including population genetics, molecular ecology and biology, evolutionary biology, and systematics. A short list of studies a conservation geneticist may research include: Phylogenetic classification of species, subspecies, geographic ...

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Protection of Plant Varieties and Plant Breeders Rights

Plant varieties or variety is the population of plants that differ consistently from typical form of species, occurring naturally in a geographical area. In botanical nomenclature, variety is a rank below that of species: As such. it gets a ternary name (a name in three parts). The term is also applied incorrectly to forms produced in cultivation, which are called ...

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Process of Genetic Modification in Plants

The process of manipulation of genes, outside the normal reproductive process of any organism is called genetic modification (GM). Genetic modification is also called as genetic engineering or gene splicing (DNA of an organism is spliced and foreign gene is inserted). Types of Plants on the Basis of Genetic Modification The plants are divided on the basis of their genetic ...

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Steps and Different Methods of Plant Breeding

Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. This manipulation involves either controlled pollination, genetic engineering, or both. It is followed by artificial selection of progeny. Plant breeding often leads to plant domestication. Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human ...

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Different Types of Hybridization in Genetics

Hybrid organism is produced by interbreeding between two animals or plants of same or different taxa. This process of hybrid formation is hybridization. There are three types of hybridizations: (a) Interspecific Hybridization/Hybrids: Hybrids or hybridization between different species within the same genus are called interspecific hybrids or crosses. (b) Intraspecific Hybridization/Hybrids: Hybrids or hybridization between different sub-species within a species are called ...

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Importance of Natural Selection in Evolution

The Process by which specific traits or genes are selected due to some environmental advantage is called Natural Selection. In the context of evolution, certain traits or alleles of a species may be subject to Natural selection. Under selection, individuals with advantageous or “adaptive” traits tend to be more successful. They contribute more offspring to the succeeding generation than others ...

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Mutagens – Physical and Chemical Mutagenesis

Mutagens are the substances or agents that induces heritable change led in cells or organisms. Mutagenesis is the processes that result in genetic change. A mutation is any change in a cell or in an organism that is transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be induced by chemical or physical agents. The cause of mutations is usually ...

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Genetic Recombination and its Different Types

Genetic recombination is the transmission-genetic process by which the combinations of alleles at different loci in parents become shuffled in offspring. Such shuffling can be the result of: (a) Crossing over: The genetic recombination via inter-chromosomal recombination is called crossing over. (b) Independent Assortment: The inter-chromosomal recombination is called independent assortment. Genetic Recombination therefore shuffles already existing genetic variation. It ...

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Gene Mutations and Types of Genetic Mutation

The changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA) are called mutation. Their are different types of Gene Mutations. The mutations can be caused by following reasons. Copying errors in the genetic material during cell division By exposure to radiation, chemicals (mutagens). Viruses may cause mutations. Mutations can occur under cellular control during processes such as meiosis or hypermutation. ...

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