Genetics

Role of Genetics and its Importance in Variability

Genetics and genetic engineering has played an important role in improvement of plant production. There are following role of genetics in plant improvement. Role of Genetics in Production of Polyploid Crops The techniques of genetics for producing polyploid crops have improved the yield of crops. Today most of major crops like wheat, corn are polyploid. Wheat is hexaploid. It has ...

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Genetic Engineering and Basic Genetic Engineering Techniques

The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism’s normal reproductive process is called genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM) or gene splicing. It involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into cells or model organisms. Therefore, proteins are expressed outside the body organisms. The aim is to introduce new characteristics into organisms physiologically or physically. Genetic engineering is ...

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Regulation of Gene Expression In Eukaryotes

The expression of gene can be controlled at different levels in the eukaryotes. Following are steps involved in Gene Expression in Eukaryotes. The first step is transcriptional control of gene expression. Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression In Eukaryotes The RNA synthesis depends on RNA polymerase enzymes. Numerous proteins called transcription factors help in the action of these enzymes. The RNA ...

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Regulation of Gene Expression In Prokaryotes By Lac Operon Model

Entire stretch of DNA required for production of enzyme is called Operon (Operon which controls the lactose concentration in bacteria is called Lac Operon). In bacteria, the expression of gene is controlled at transcription level. Discovery of Lac Operon Operon model of gene expression was first described by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod in 1961. The Lac operon is involved in ...

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Steps of Protein Synthesis In Relation To Translation

The synthesis of protein at the ribosomes form mRNA is called translations. There are different steps of protein synthesis (translation), which are as follow. Role of tRNA in Translation Transfer RNA (tRNA) plays important role in translation. It reads codes on the mRNA and brings different amino acids. Thus, a polypeptide chain is formed. The tRNA has complementary pairing of ...

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Transcription Synthesis Steps From Messenger RNA To DNA

The synthesis of messenger RNA from DNA is called transcription. The genetic information in DNA is not translated directly into proteins. This information is first transcribed into mRNA. Many enzymes are involved in the process of transcription. These enzymes perform following functions: They unwind a region of a DNA molecule. They initiate and end mRNA synthesis. They also modify the ...

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History of Genetic Code In Relation To Genome Expression

Genetic code is sequence of three bases-a triplet code. DNA must code for the 20 different amino acids. DNA has information carrying capabilities. This information is present in the sequence of nitrogenous bases of DNA. DNA transfers these sequences to mRNA. Each three-base is a codon. There are 64 possible codons. But there are only 20 amino acids. Hence more ...

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Gene Nature And Properties Of The Gene

The Gene Nature and Properties of Gene are as Follow: The word “gene” was defined in 1909 by Danish botanist Wilhelm Johannsen as the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. The word was derived pangenesis used by Darwin (1868). The word pangenesis is made from the Greek words pan and genesis (“birth”) or genos (“origin”). Classical Genetics and evolutionary ...

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DNA Replication And Steps Involved In The DNA Replication

DNA Replication And Steps Involved In The DNA Replication DNA replication is the biological process of producing two same (Identical) Copies of DNA from one Parental or original DNA. The DNA replication process occurs in all living organisms of this world and is the basis, the core, the root for biological inheritance. Following steps are involved in the replication of ...

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Gene Linkage Separation By Crossing Over

The exchange of segments between non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes (Are similar but not Identical) during meiosis is known as crossing over. Linked genes can be separated by crossing over. Two genes closer gene loci are strongly linked. There is greater chance of their separation through crossing over. if the gene lie father apart. Suppose, there is a single pair ...

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