Category: Photosynthesis

Reactants And Products Of Photosynthesis

PRODUCTS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS The products or result of photosynthesis are the carbohydrates and oxygen. Four starches, D-glucose. D-fructose, sucrose and starch are regularly are framed in the green cells in photosynthesis. Plant physiologists and natural chemists have attempted to locate the primary result of this procedure. Yet at the same time it is not clear [Continue]

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis Light And Photosynthesis Light is an important factor as photosynthesis does not take place in dark. When considering effect of light on photosynthesis it is important to distinguish between the effects of light intensity and light quality. Light Quality The light consists of rays of different wavelengths. The study of absorption spectrum revealed [Continue]

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

CAM Plants Dark Fixation of carbon Dioxide Many species living in arid climates have thick leaves and relatively low surface-to-volume ratio and have low transpiration rates. Their cells have large central vacuoles with a thin layer of cytoplasm around them. These plants are called succulents. Another characteristic feature of these plants is that their stomata [Continue]

Calvin Cycle

Calvin Benson Cycle Dark reaction involves conversion of carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. It occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast and involves many reactions, each catalyzed by a different enzyme. The dark reactions require the products of light step (ATP and NADPH2), but does not itself requires light. This is why it is referred to [Continue]


Photophosphorylation The production of ATP in the chloroplast or in the other membranes during light reaction is called photophosphorylation. Photophosphorylation occurs in ATP-synthase complex or coupling factor (CF) located in stroma thylakoid membranes. The coupling factor is also responsible for transport of H+ from the thylakoid channel to the stroma. The electron transfer during photophosphorylation [Continue]

Light Reaction Of Photosynthesis

Hill Reaction Chloroplasts contained the naturally occurring electron acceptor NADP+ and that it was reduced to NADPH2 in the light by addition of electrons and hydrogen ions. The hydrogen ions for the reduction are provide by water molecule which split into hydrogen ions and electrons releasing the oxygen (photolysis of water). The chloroplasts supplied with [Continue]

Photosystem Of Light

Photo-Systems – The Light Traps The orderly arrangement of photosynthetic pigments on thylakoid membrane is called photo-system. History Hill and Fay Benda11 (1960) proposed that photo-chemical phase of photosynthesis involves two events, one that tended to oxidize the cytochrome and the other that tended to reduce it. It is now known that oxidation is brought [Continue]

Chlorophyll Function And Structure

Chlorophyll The chlorophyll molecule has a porphyrin-ring like structures (head) with a magnesium atom in the center and a long hydrophobic hydrocarbon tail that anchors it in photosynthetic membrane. The porphyrin ring (head) is a flat, square structure containing four smaller rings (I-IV), each possessing a nitrogen atom which can bond with magnesium atom. Head: [Continue]


Photosynthesis Autotrophic organisms such as green plants, algae and cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) make their own organic nutrients from simple inorganic nutrients (water, carbon dioxide and minerals) and radiant energy in a process called photosynthesis. The radiant energy is converted into chemical energy of specific organic compounds, mainly sugars and starch, amino acids and lipids. Oxygen [Continue]