Category: Plant Anatomy

Cell wall

Structure of cell wall Cell wall is present only in plant cells. Cell wall is non-protoplasmic. It is considered as metabolic byproduct of the protoplast. Cell wall provides support and protection to cell. It also plays an important role in absorption, translocation and secretion. Cell wall is divided into different layers. Cell twills vary greatly [Continue]

Plant Tissue

Tissues The group of cells performing some collective function is called tissue. Tissues organize the body of plant for performing different function. Many types of tissues associate with each other to form tissue system. Vascular system is an example of tissue system. The tissues have following characteristics: Tissues are composed of many cells. These cells [Continue]

Secondary Growth of Root

The roots increase in thickness by the formation of secondary vascular tissues. The secondary vascular tissues are produced by the activity of the vascular cambium. It produces the secondary xylem towards the inner side and secondaryphloem towards the outer side. Secondary growth is common in  gymnosperms and dicotyledonous roots. But it is absent in herbaceous [Continue]


The internal structure of the stem is more complex. Stem is differentiated into nodes and internodes. The leaves are inserted on the nodes. The arrangement of leaves on the ‘nodes has made the stem more complicated. Stem has three fundamental systems. These tissues systems are epidermis or dermal tissues, ground tissues and vascular tissues. In [Continue]

Leaf Structure

STRUCTURE OF LEAF Different groups of plants hake different variations in the internal structure or foliage leaves. Hie leaves show different evolutionary adaptations for different environmental conditions. The leaf tissues are divided into three fundamental systems. These are epidermal. mesophyll and vascular tissues. Epidermis The leaf tissue is covered on both sides by epidermis. The [Continue]

Xylem and Phloem

XYLEM Xylems are non-living conducting tissues. They conduct water and dissolved salts from root to different parts of plant. Xylem also forms \S ood in plants. It supports plant body. Xylem tissues are present  only in tracheophytes. Composition of XylemXylem is composed of thllow Mg types of tissues only in tracheophytes. Composition of Xylem Xylem [Continue]

Sclerenchyma Tissues

The lignified tisries .vhich lack protoplast at maturity are called sclerenchyma. Hey have thick secondary wall. These are main strengthening tissues of plant. Sclerenehyma cells are found in all parts of plant. They: are present in both ground tissues and vascular tissues. Sclerenchyma has two types: Fibers and sclereids (a) Fibers Very long and narrow [Continue]

Root Anatomy

ANATOMY OF ROOT Root has following types of tissues:  Side: The vascular tissue and the pericycle form a tube of conducting cells called stele. Xvlems are present in the centre of the root. Xylems are composed of tracheids and vessels. The xylem of the root is continuous %s al) the xylem tissue in the stein. [Continue]

Plant Tissues

collenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues Table of Simple Tissues is as Follow   Collenchyma Tissues Collenchyma is a living tissue composed of more or less elongated cells with unevenly thick, glistering, primary non-lignified walls. Collenchyma develops from the elongated cells which resemble procambium or from isodiametric cells of the ground meristems. Collenchyma functions as supporting tissue [Continue]

Parenchyma Tissues

Tissue Types And Tissue Systems Different Tissues with their brief explanation, their structure, their functions and their role is shown in the following diagram. Permanent Tissues The permanent tissue develops from meristematic cells which get differentiated. These cells lose power of division. They can resume meristematic activity if needed. The cells of the permanent tissue may [Continue]