Chapter 8 Kingdom Fungi MCQs For NTS MDCAT Test
Chapter 8 kingdom fungi mcqs: Fungi are heterotrophic organisms also known as kingdom of recyclers. which cannot synthesize their own food. Therefore, they get their food from different sources. Fungi are found in different vast variety of habitats. These habitats are water, soil, dead and decaying organic matter. Fungi plays important roles. They are ecologically as well as economically very important. We have Important test mcqs for NTS, MCAT, NUST, AGHA KHAN and All Universities.
Fungi have great ecological importance as decomposers, symbionts and bioremediators.
Fungi along with saprobic bacteria, play vital role in the recycling of inorganic nutrients in the ecosystem. Without decomposition, all the essential nutrients would soon become locked up in the form of dead animals, plants and the wastes of animals and plants. Therefore the essential nutrients would be unavailable to the organisms. As a result the life would cease.
Mycorrhizae: Mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth of plants with which they are associated. About 95% of all kinds of vascular plants have this association.
Lichens: Lichens growing on the rocks break them, setting a stage for other organisms during the course of ecological succession.
Bioindicators: Lichens are very good bioindicators of air quality as they are very sensitive to pollution.
Bioremediation: Some fungi are also used for bioremediation (degrading/removing environmental poisons/pollutants by organisms).
Fungi cause economic gains as well as losses. Economic gains due to fungi.
Certain fungi are edible. About 200 species of mushrooms (e.g. Agaricus sp), morels (e.g. Morchella esculenta), Truffles (underground fruiting bodies of some Ascomycetes, e.g. Tuber sp that people find with the help of trained dogs or pigs) are common edible fungi. Chapter 8 kingdom fungi mcqs
Reindeer moss (a lichen, not a moss) is used as food for reindeers and some other large animals in arctic/subarctic/boreal regions.
There are some poisonous mushrooms called the toadstools, such as death cap/death angle (Amanita) and jack-O’ lantern mushroom.
Certain fungi are used in food industry because of their fermenting ability.
Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) are used in the production of bread and liquor.
Penicillium species are used for giving flavor, aroma and characteristic color to some cheese.
Some species of Aspergillus are used for fermenting/producing soya sauce and soya paste from the soya bean.
Citric acid is also obtained from some Aspergillus species.
Antibiotics and Drugs
- Some fungi are source of antibiotics and some other drugs. Penicillin, first antibiotic discovered (by A. Fleming-1928) is obtained from Penicillium notatum.
- Lovastatin is used for lowering the blood cholestrol.
- Cyclosporine obtained from a soil fungus is used in organ transplantation for preventing transplant rejection
- Ergotine is used to relieve one kind of headache, migraine.
- Griseofulvin is used to inhibit fungal growth.
- Dyes: Some natural dyes obtained from lichens are used in textile industry.
- Pink bread mold (Neurospora) has also been used for genetic research.
USE OF YEASTS IN BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Yeasts are unicellular microscopic fungi, derived from all the three different groups of fungi but mostly Ascomycetes.
Yeasts reproduce mostly asexually by budding sexual reproduction. Yeasts reproduce sexually by forming asci/ascospores or basidia / basidiospores.
Importance of Yeasts
- Yeasts are used in genetic/molecular biological research because of their rapid generation and rapidly increasing pool of genetic and biochemical information. Chapter 8 kingdom fungi mcqs
- Yeasts were the first eukaryotes to be used by genetic engineers. In 1983, a functional artificial chromosome was made in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The same yeast was the first eukaryote whose genomic sequence was completely studied in 1996.
- Yeasts are also being investigated for production of some hormones.
- Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ferment carbohydrate (glucose) to ethanol and carbon dioxide. They are of great economic importance due to their fermenting ability and are used in the production of bread and liquor.
ECONOMIC LOSSES DUE TO FUNGI
Fungi are responsible for plant diseases, animal diseases and food spoilage.
Fungi are responsible for many serious plant diseases because they produce several enzymes that can breakdown cellulose, lignin and cutin. All plants are affected by them. Some of the plant diseases are as follows:
Rusts and Smuts: Due to Rust & Smut many people were died of starvation or were migrated to other countries.
Other Diseases: Powdery mildews (on grapes, rose and wheat etc.), ergot of rye, red rot of sugar cane, Potato wilt, cotton root rot, apple scab and brown rot of peaches, plums, apricots and cherries are some other common plant diseases caused by fungi. Chapter 8 kingdom fungi mcqs
Wood-rotting Fungi: Wood-rotting fungi destroy not only living trees but also structural timber. Bracket/shelf fungi cause lot of damage to the stored cut lumber as well as stands of timber of living trees.
Fungi also cause certain animal diseases. Some are as follows:
Ringworm and Athlete’s Foot: Ringworm and athlete’s foot are superficial fungal infections caused by certain imperfect fungi.
Candidiasis or Candidosis: Candida albicans (a yeast) causes oral and vaginal thrush (candidiasis or candidosis).
Histoplasmosis: Histoplasmosis is a serious infection of lungs caused by inhaling spores of a fungus which is common in soil contaminated with bird’s feces.
If infection spreads into blood stream and then to other organs (which is very occasional), it can be serious and even fatal.
Aspergillosis: Aspergillus fumigatus causes aspergillosis, but only in persons with defective immune system such as AIDS and may cause death.
Aflatoxins: Some strains of Aspergillus flavus produce carcinogenic (cancer-causing) mycotoxins (toxins produced by fungi) called aflatoxins.
Aspergillus contaminates improperly stored grains such as peanuts and corn etc. And they have aflatoxins.
Milk, eggs and meat may also have small traces of aflatoxins.
Note: Any moldy human food or animal forage product should be discarded.
Ergotism: Ergotism is caused by eating bread made from purple ergot-contaminated rye flour.
The poisonous material in the ergot causes nervous spasm, convulsion, Psychotic delusion and gangrene.
Food Spoilage: Saprobic fungi are not only useful recyclers but also cause vast damage to the food, wood, fiber and leather by decomposing them.
About 15-50% of world’s fruit is lost each year due to fungal attack.
Growth on Shower Curtains: A pink yeast (Rhodotorula) grows on shower curtains and other moist surfaces.