The Rosaceae family consists of about 115 genera and 3200 species. The members of the family are worldwide in distribution. Such as Rose Gulab (Rosa indica). They are found in temperate and cold regions. The family is important for its valuable fruit plants and beautiful and fragrant flowers.
The common representative genera are: Rosa indica (gulab), Prunus spp (badam, khubani, alu bokhara), Pyrus communis (nashpati), Eriobotrya japonica (locate), Fragaria (strawberry), Potentilla, (a medicinal plant) and Malus sp (seb).
Herb. shrubs or tree, stipulate alternate simple or compound leaves, flower hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, hypo or perigynous. calyx 5 united, corolla 5 to many, stamen numerous, ovary is with single to many carpals.
The representative species is Rosa indica (gulab – rose).
Rosa indica (Gulab – Rose)
A prickly climbing shrub. The flowers are a source of an essential oil, oil of roses.
Tap root, branched.
Erect, branched, prickly.
Cauline and ramal, stipulate (stipules adnate the petiole), imparipinnately compound, rachis bears prickles.
Stalked, ovate, serrate margins, reticulate unicostate.
Cymose Solitary terminal or axillary.
Bracteate (bracts rarely persistent), pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, bisexual, perigynous, flowers: yellow, red, white or pink
Five sepals, gamosepalous, tubular, inferior.
Petals 5 to indefinite, polypetalous, rosaceous, colored, scented, inferior.
Stamens indefinite, polyandrous, anthers basifixed, inferior.
Polycarpellary, apocarpous, ovary superior with a single ovule, placentation basal, stigma terminal, ovule solitary.
Floral Formula: K(5) C∞ A∞ G∞ _
Economic Importance of the Family.
This cosmopolitan family is very rich in its contribution to the pleasure and welfare of mankind.
Source of Fruits
It includes apples, pears, quinces, peaches, apricots, almond, strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and several other edible fruits which are of immense values.
Several beautiful flowering shrubs belong to this family, especially the roses.
Source of Gulkand
The petals of rose have a purgative property and are used in the manufacture of gulkand, a laxative.
Source of Perfume
Many kinds of scents obtained from various species of rose etc.
Source of Medicine
Ark gulab (Rose water) is used as medicine for eye diseases.
Bitter and Astringent
The root and bark of some plants are bitter and astringent.
Several members abound in an acrid waiery juice which is more or less narcotic in its effect in the animal frame-work. Among these, the most important is Conium (Hemlock) part of plant, especially the fresh leaves and green fruits contain a volatile oily alkali called coniine, which is so poisonous that a few drops soon prove fatal to small animals. It acts on the nervous system and is a valuable medicine in small doses in cancerous and nervous diseases. Several British species, especially of Oenathe, Cicuta and Aethusa are also poisonous and their fleshy roots are very deadly to all kinds of live-stock and have many times been fatal to man.