Following are the important genetic engineering exam questions and answers for exams, quiz and tests. Students can prepare these important questions.
- What is genetic engineering?
Ans: The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism’s normal reproductive process is called genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM) or gene splicing.
- Give uses of genetic engineering?
Ans: Make a crop resistant to herbicide. Introducing a novel trait. Producing a new protein or enzyme.
- Give three uses of genetic engineering?
Ans: Its examples are production of human insulin through the of modified bacteria. Production of erythropoietin in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. The production of new types of experimental mice such as the Onco-Mouse (cancer mouse) for research, through genetic redesign. genetic engineering exam questions and answers
- What are restriction enzymes? Give their types?
Ans: Restriction endonucleases break the high-molecular-weight DNA into fragments. Three different classes of these enzymes are present. But only type II restriction endonucleases are used extensively in the manipulation of DNA.
- How are different fragments of DNA are separated?
Ans: The various fragments of a specific DNA are separated into different bands of distinct molecular weights by agarose gel electrophoresis.
- What is southern bolting?
Ans: Specific sequences of these bands can be identified by a technique called Southern blotting. In this technique, DNA restriction fragments present on a gel are denatured. They are blotted on a nitrocellulose filter. The filter is incubated together with a radioactively labeled DNA or RNA probe. These probes are specific for the gene under study. The labeled probe hybridizes to its complement in the restricted DNA. The regions of hybridization are detected autoradiography.
- What is Sonification?
Ans: It is another method used to generate small DNA fragments. In this case. intense sonification of high-molecular-weight DNA is done with the help of ultrasound or high-speed stirring blender. This method is used to produce DNA fragments of a certain size range. genetic engineering exam questions and answers
- What is Complementary DNA?
Ans: Other source of DNA is synthesis of complementary DNA (cDNA). It is synthesized in test tube artificially by joining nucleotides.
- What are homopolymer extensions?
Ans: Another method for joining DNA molecules involves the addition of homopolymer extensions to different DNA fragments. These homopolymer extensions then join the DNA fragments.
- What is transfection?
Ans: Transformation of a cell with DNA from a virus is called transfection.
- What is use of particle gun?
Ans: This method is eloped by John C Sanford and Theodore M. Klein of Cornell University in 1987. They introduced DNA into a plant tissue culture callus. They developed device called particle gun. This gun bombards a callus with microscopic metal particles. These particles are coated with DNA. genetic engineering exam questions and answers
- What are plasmids? Give its uses?
Ans: Plasmids: plasmids are extrachromosomal DNA sequences that are stably inherited Escherichia coli and its plasmids constitute the most versatile type of host-vector system known for DNA cloning.
- What are cosmids?
Ans: plasmids have also constructed that contain the phage cos DNA site and ColE1 DNA segments. Cos DNA is required for packing into the phage particles. ColE1 DNA segments required for plasmid replication. These plasmids are called cosmids. genetic engineering exam questions and answers