Following are the glossary of botanical terms and their definitions are as follow:
Diversity: The presence of variety of plants in the form of different taxas (specie, genera) is called diversity of plant.
Systematics: The study of kinds and diversity of organisms and the evolutionary relationships among them is called systematics or taxonomy.
Alternation of Generation: The phenomenon in which haploid gametophyte generation and diploid sporophyte generation alternates with each other is called alternation of generation.
Seed: A seed consists of an embryo packed ovule along with store of food within a protective covering.
Virus: Viruses are infectious particles consisting only of the viral genes enclosed in a shell made up of proteins.
Capsid: The protein shell that encloses the viral genome is called a capsid.
Capsomeres: Capsids are built from a large number of protein subunits called capsomeres.
Retroviruses: The RNA viruses which can convert their single stranded RNA into double stranded DNA are called retroviruses.
Epiphytes: These algae grow on the surface of other plants.
Phytoplankton: The free-floating algae are phytoplankton.
Endophytes: These algae live inside the other plants.
Ceonobia: Some colonies have definite number of cells. Such colonies are called coenobia.
Heterotrichous: The filament with prostate (horizontal) and vertical s stem are called heterotrichous.
Pseudo-Parenchyma: Sometimes, filaments are loosely grouped to from pseudo-parenchmatous body.
Coenocytic: The filaments without cross walls are called coenocytic filaments.
Phycobilins: These are phycocyanin (blue) and phycoerythrin (red).
Axonemes: Each flagellum is composed of axial filaments called axonemes.
Paradesmose: Basal bodies are connected with each other by transverse fibers called paradesmose.
Basal Bodies: Axonemes are surrounded by sheath. Flagellum arises from basal bodies.
Palmella: Sometimes, spores remain embedded in mucilaginous matrix. Thus, a rounded body is formed with many spores. This condition is called Palmella stage.
Zoospore: Motile spores are called zoospores.
Aplanospores: The non-motile spores are called aplanospore.
Hypnospores: In this case, cell secretes a thick wall and become rounded. It becomes hypnospores.
Akinetes: If the original wall of the cell becomes thick, it is called akinete.
Gonidia: The size of some cells increases. They become ten times larger. These cells are called gonidia.
Cingulum: The margins of the two valves are covered by a connecting band called cingulum.
Frustule: The two valves with their inner protoplasts are called frustule. botanical terms
Valve View: the frustule has two views. The surface view is called valve view.
Band View: Girdle view is called as band view.
Hyphae: Hyphae are minute, thread like tubular structure.
Mycelium: the group or mass of hyphae is called mycelium.
Coenocyte: Hyphae containing many nuclei are called coenocyte.
Sporophores: Sometimes, hyphae organized to form fruiting bodies. These fruiting bodies are called sporophores.
Plectenchyma: The tissues composed of compact mass of hyphae are called plectenchyma.
Prosenchyma: the tissues with distinct hyphae are called prosenchyma.
Pseudo-parenchyma: the tissue in which individual hyphae lose their shape and become isodiametric is called pseudo-parenchyma. botanical terms
Stromata: Some fungal tissues very hard. Fruiting bodies are formed on such tissues. These tissues are called stromata.
Endospore: the spores produced inside the sporangia are called endospores.
Conidia: The spore produced at the tip of hyphae outside the sporangia are called conidia.
Oidia: In some fungi, the hyphae break up into individual’s cells. These cells behave as spores. Such spores are called arthospores or oidia. botanical terms
Lichens: The intimate symbiotic association of fungi and algae is called lichens.
Paraphylls: The superficial cells of the stem give rise to paraphylls. Paraphylls are filamentous outgrowths. They supplement the photosynthetic activities of leaves.
Tubers: These are modified special underground branches. These are formed at the end of growing season. They remain dormant throughout the unfavorable conditions.
Bracts: The leaves adjacent to the sex organs are called bracts.
Involcure: The archegonia and bracts forms structure called involucre.
Stele: The vascular tissue is confined to the central region of the stem forming the stele.
Microphyllous: The sporophytes with small and scale like leaves are called microphyllous.
Megaphyllous: The sporophyte with large and prominent leaves is megaphyllous.
Phyllosporous: When the sporangia are borne on the leaves then the condition is known as phyllosporous.
Stachosporous: When sporangia borne in the axils of the leaves then the condition is known as stachyosporous.
Sporophylls: The leaves which bear the sporangia are called sporophylls.
Tapetum: One or two peripheral layers persist for the nourishment of the developing spores. These nourishing cells form tapetum.
Haplostele: The protostele in which xylem core is smooth and rounded is called Haplostele. botanical terms
Actinostele: The protostele in which xylem core is star like is called Actinostlele.
Solenostele: This is a type of siphonostele in which the gaps of different leaf traces do not overlap. Only one is present in the main cylinder.
Dictyostele: This is a type or siphonostele in which different gaps overlap with each other.
Polycyclic: The siphonostele in which two cylinders of vascular tissue are present in the stele is called polycyclic.
Protoxylem: In this case, the tracheids are annular with spiral thickening. These tracheids elongates even after maturity.
Metaxylem: In this case, the thickenings on tracheids are scalariform in the form simple pits. They do not elongate after maturity.
Exarch: in this case, protoxylem is lying on the periphery of metaxylem.
Mesarch: in this case, protoxylem is lying in the middle of metaxylem.
Endarch: in this case, the protoxylem is lying towards the inner side of the metaxylem.
Rhizome: rhizome is underground part of stem. Leaves and roots are absent on rhizome. Rhizome develops rhizoids for absorption of water.
Synangium: The triad of sporangia is called synangium.
Trabeculea: The stele is separated from the cortex by a wide air space. These spaces have long radiating cells called trabeculae. botanical terms
Circinnate Vernation: The young leaves are coiled inward in the embryonic state. It is called circinnate vernation.
Oosphere: Unfertilized egg is called oosphere.
Oospore: Fertilized egg is called oospore.
Collateral: Vascular bundles arrange in rings.
Coralloid Roots: Coralloid roots are short tufts and dichotomously branched roots.
Transfusion Tissues: Transfusion tissues are present around. mid ribs. They cause lateral conduction in the leaf.
Spur: A dwarf shoot with its foliage leaves is called spur.
Umbo: The broader end of the ovuliferous scale has projection called th umbo.