Steps and Different Methods of Plant Breeding

Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. This manipulation involves either controlled pollination, genetic engineering, or both. It is followed by artificial selection of progeny. Plant breeding often leads to plant domestication. Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human ...

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Different Types of Hybridization in Genetics

Hybrid organism is produced by interbreeding between two animals or plants of same or different taxa. This process of hybrid formation is hybridization. There are three types of hybridizations: (a) Interspecific Hybridization/Hybrids: Hybrids or hybridization between different species within the same genus are called interspecific hybrids or crosses. (b) Intraspecific Hybridization/Hybrids: Hybrids or hybridization between different sub-species within a species are called ...

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Importance of Natural Selection in Evolution

The Process by which specific traits or genes are selected due to some environmental advantage is called Natural Selection. In the context of evolution, certain traits or alleles of a species may be subject to Natural selection. Under selection, individuals with advantageous or “adaptive” traits tend to be more successful. They contribute more offspring to the succeeding generation than others ...

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Mutagens – Physical and Chemical Mutagenesis

Mutagens are the substances or agents that induces heritable change led in cells or organisms. Mutagenesis is the processes that result in genetic change. A mutation is any change in a cell or in an organism that is transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be induced by chemical or physical agents. The cause of mutations is usually ...

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Characteristics of Kingdom Monera Which Are Prokaryotes

The kingdom monera are mostly unicellular prokaryotes. Their organisms are the simplest prokaryotes. The characteristics of Monera are as follow. Cell Type They are prokaryotic in nature. They are just composed of genetic material. In case of prokaryotic organisms, the nucleus is poorly developed due to the absence of: While in eukaryotes the nucleus is well developed. The poorly developed nucleus ...

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Genetic Recombination and its Different Types

Genetic recombination is the transmission-genetic process by which the combinations of alleles at different loci in parents become shuffled in offspring. Such shuffling can be the result of: (a) Crossing over: The genetic recombination via inter-chromosomal recombination is called crossing over. (b) Independent Assortment: The inter-chromosomal recombination is called independent assortment. Genetic Recombination therefore shuffles already existing genetic variation. It ...

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Gene Mutations and Types of Genetic Mutation

The changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA) are called mutation. Their are different types of Gene Mutations. The mutations can be caused by following reasons. Copying errors in the genetic material during cell division By exposure to radiation, chemicals (mutagens). Viruses may cause mutations. Mutations can occur under cellular control during processes such as meiosis or hypermutation. ...

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Role of Genetics and its Importance in Variability

Genetics and genetic engineering has played an important role in improvement of plant production. There are following role of genetics in plant improvement. Role of Genetics in Production of Polyploid Crops The techniques of genetics for producing polyploid crops have improved the yield of crops. Today most of major crops like wheat, corn are polyploid. Wheat is hexaploid. It has ...

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Genetic Engineering and Basic Genetic Engineering Techniques

The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism’s normal reproductive process is called genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM) or gene splicing. It involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into cells or model organisms. Therefore, proteins are expressed outside the body organisms. The aim is to introduce new characteristics into organisms physiologically or physically. Genetic engineering is ...

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