Mutagens – Physical and Chemical Mutagenesis

Mutagens are the substances or agents that induces heritable change led in cells or organisms. Mutagenesis is the processes that result in genetic change. A mutation is any change in a cell or in an organism that is transmitted to subsequent generations. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be induced by chemical or physical agents. The cause of mutations is usually ...

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Characteristics of Kingdom Monera Which Are Prokaryotes

The kingdom monera are mostly unicellular prokaryotes. Their organisms are the simplest prokaryotes. The characteristics of Monera are as follow. Cell Type They are prokaryotic in nature. They are just composed of genetic material. In case of prokaryotic organisms, the nucleus is poorly developed due to the absence of: While in eukaryotes the nucleus is well developed. The poorly developed nucleus ...

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Genetic Recombination and its Different Types

Genetic recombination is the transmission-genetic process by which the combinations of alleles at different loci in parents become shuffled in offspring. Such shuffling can be the result of: (a) Crossing over: The genetic recombination via inter-chromosomal recombination is called crossing over. (b) Independent Assortment: The inter-chromosomal recombination is called independent assortment. Genetic Recombination therefore shuffles already existing genetic variation. It ...

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Gene Mutations and Types of Genetic Mutation

The changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA) are called mutation. Their are different types of Gene Mutations. The mutations can be caused by following reasons. Copying errors in the genetic material during cell division By exposure to radiation, chemicals (mutagens). Viruses may cause mutations. Mutations can occur under cellular control during processes such as meiosis or hypermutation. ...

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Role of Genetics and its Importance in Variability

Genetics and genetic engineering has played an important role in improvement of plant production. There are following role of genetics in plant improvement. Role of Genetics in Production of Polyploid Crops The techniques of genetics for producing polyploid crops have improved the yield of crops. Today most of major crops like wheat, corn are polyploid. Wheat is hexaploid. It has ...

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Genetic Engineering and Basic Genetic Engineering Techniques

The process of manipulating genes, usually outside the organism’s normal reproductive process is called genetic engineering or genetic modification (GM) or gene splicing. It involves the isolation, manipulation and reintroduction of DNA into cells or model organisms. Therefore, proteins are expressed outside the body organisms. The aim is to introduce new characteristics into organisms physiologically or physically. Genetic engineering is ...

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Classification of Plant Kingdoms With Diagrams

In Classification of Plant Kingdoms the Fourth Kingdom Classification was given by Copeland an American biologist who created the fourth kingdom Mycota (Monera) along with Three Kingdoms. In 1966, he included bacteria and one of the most primitive algae, called blue green algae, under this kingdom. Copeland was the first scientist who separated bacteria into a separate kingdom known as ...

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Plant Kingdom Classification And Their Drawbacks

The Process in which organisms are placed into different groups on the basis of similarity and dissimilarity in characteristics is known as classification. Here are going to discuss the contribution of different /several scientists towards classification. The first time, plants and animals were given the status of kingdom by the scientist named Carolus Linnaeus. So, let’s start with biological classification. ...

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Biodiversity Measurement in Relation to Diversity of Ecological Function

Bio means “Life” and Diversity means “Variety”. In short variety of life is called biodiversity. While conservation means maintaining earth biodiversity. Diversity of life in all forms and at all levels of organizations. All the forms mean biodiversity including plants, animals, fungi, invertebrate, bacteria and level of organization refers to the diversity of gene, ecosystem as well as species. The ...

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Regulation of Gene Expression In Eukaryotes

The expression of gene can be controlled at different levels in the eukaryotes. Following are steps involved in Gene Expression in Eukaryotes. The first step is transcriptional control of gene expression. Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression In Eukaryotes The RNA synthesis depends on RNA polymerase enzymes. Numerous proteins called transcription factors help in the action of these enzymes. The RNA ...

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