Basal Metabolic Rate

What is Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)? Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of total energy expenditure necessary to maintain our basic bodies function under basal condition. Basal condition means- Person should be at rest. Person should be awake. Person should be without food for about 12 hours. Person should be in a comfortable temperature (200-250C). Importance of Basal Metabolic ...

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What is anabolism?

Anabolism is the constructive processes of metabolism. It concerned with the formation of complex molecules from simple precursors with the utilization of free energy. For example, amino acids are simple molecules, build complex molecules of proteins through a series of anabolic reactions that build up our bodies muscle. The purpose of anabolism is to synthesis the complex molecules that build ...

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What is catabolism?

Catabolism is the degradative processes of metabolism. It concerned with the breakdown of complex food molecules to simple ones, with a concomitant release of free energy. For example, carbohydrates are complex molecules, breakdown into simple molecules of carbon dioxide and water with concomitant release free energy as a form of ATP through a series of catabolic reactions. The purpose of ...

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What is metabolism?

What is metabolism? Literally meaning of metabolism is “change”. It is the entire spectrum of chemical reactions, occurring in the living organisms to continue life processes. Metabolism allows all living organisms to grow and reproduction, respond to environment, and maintain their structural organization. Metabolism consists of two subdivisions called catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the degradative processes concerned with the ...

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Third stage of cellular respiration

Third stage of cellular respiration is the final common pathway of a cell to generate energy and occurs through the electron transport chain in which the metabolic intermediates of first and second stage of cellular respiration donate electrons to specific coenzymes – NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) to produce energy rich reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2. ...

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Second stage of cellular respiration

Second stage of cellular respiration carried out through the Citric acid cycle/ Krebs cycle/ TCA cycle in which Acetyl Co-A is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water, and reduces co-enzymes that are re-oxidized through the electron transport chain, linked to the generation of ATP. It occurs totally in the mitochondria of a cell. The enzymes of second stage of cellular ...

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First stage of cellular respiration

Simple food molecules such as glucose, amino acid, and fatty acid can all be used as fuels for generation of energy in first stage of cellular respiration, but glucose is the principal fuel. Therefore, the principal process of first stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis. In glycolysis, enzymatic breakdown of glucose occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell by ten ...

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What is cellular respiration?

Cellular respiration may be defined as a set of metabolic processes by which cells generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from the food molecules and release waste products. In cellular respiration, oxygen is required to generate large amount of energy but cells can also generate a small amount of energy without oxygen under several conditions, including in ...

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Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease

The tobacco mosaic disease is caused by a rod-shaped virus called as TMV. TMV stands for Tobacco Mosaic Virus. It causes disease in Tobacco plant. It is a single stranded RNA virus with rod shape as you can see in following picture. Structure & Features of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) It is about 300 nm long and 15 nm in diameter ...

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Bacteriophage Structure and Function

Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria. They were discovered independently by Frederick W. Twort in England in 1915 and by Felix d’ Herelle at the Pasteur’s Institute in Paris in 1917. The term bacteriophage age was coined by D’ Herelle which means bacteria eater. Bacterial viruses are widely distributed in nature. Phages exist in almost all bacteria. Systematic:    Position Division: ...

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