Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis overview: Gluconeogenesis is the process by which glucose is synthesized from noncarbohydrate precursors. The major noncarbohydrate precursors are pyruvate, lactate, glycerol , and glucogenic amono acids. Some body tisssues, such as brain, renal medulla, erythrocytes, lens and cornea of eye, exercising muscle, and testes, require a continuous supply of glucose as a metabolic fuel. Hepatic glycogen can meet these ...

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Glycogenesis

Synthesis of glycogen from glucose is called glycogenesis. Glycogen is the major storage form of glucose in our body that is reserved for future use. Glycogenesis mainly occurs in the liver and skeletal muscle. It takes part in the cytoplasm of cells, and requires energy supplied by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP). In liver, glycogenesis occurs during periods ...

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Pentose phosphate pathway

Pentose phosphate pathway (also called HMP shunt or Hexose monophosphate shunt) is an alternative pathway for glucose metabolism. It does not lead to generation of any ATP. But this pathway has two major functions: (A) generation of NADPH for synthesis of fatty acid and steroid, and (B) formation of ribose for nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis. Pentose phosphate pathway occurs ...

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Glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen to glucose (in liver) or glucose 6-phosphate (in muscle) is called glycogenolysis. Glycogenolysis occurs within the cytoplasm of cells. Glycogen is the major storage carbohydrate in our body. It stored mainly in the liver and skeletal muscle. In liver, glycogenolysis occurs during periods of fasting to maintain blood glucose level. In skeletal muscle, glycogenolysis occurs during active ...

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What is glycolysis?

Glycolysis is the principal pathway of glucose metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells where glucose is oxidized to pyruvate (in aerobic condition) or lactate (in anaerobic condition) and generates energy in the form of ATP. Types of glycolysis pathway: Glycolysis pathways are two types; Aerobic glycolysis – Aerobic glycolysis occurs in cells with mitochondria and in the presence ...

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Carbohydrate Metabolism

Dietary carbohydrates are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and converted into glucose, galactose and fructose. All are absorbed into the portal blood from intestine and reach in the liver where galactose and fructose are converted into glucose. The glucose then enters into systemic blood circulation where the blood glucose is controlled mainly by two hormones; insulin and glucagon. If the ...

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Basal Metabolic Rate

What is Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)? Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the amount of total energy expenditure necessary to maintain our basic bodies function under basal condition. Basal condition means- Person should be at rest. Person should be awake. Person should be without food for about 12 hours. Person should be in a comfortable temperature (200-250C). Importance of Basal Metabolic ...

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What is anabolism?

Anabolism is the constructive processes of metabolism. It concerned with the formation of complex molecules from simple precursors with the utilization of free energy. For example, amino acids are simple molecules, build complex molecules of proteins through a series of anabolic reactions that build up our bodies muscle. The purpose of anabolism is to synthesis the complex molecules that build ...

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What is catabolism?

Catabolism is the degradative processes of metabolism. It concerned with the breakdown of complex food molecules to simple ones, with a concomitant release of free energy. For example, carbohydrates are complex molecules, breakdown into simple molecules of carbon dioxide and water with concomitant release free energy as a form of ATP through a series of catabolic reactions. The purpose of ...

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What is metabolism?

What is metabolism? Literally meaning of metabolism is “change”. It is the entire spectrum of chemical reactions, occurring in the living organisms to continue life processes. Metabolism allows all living organisms to grow and reproduction, respond to environment, and maintain their structural organization. Metabolism consists of two subdivisions called catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the degradative processes concerned with the ...

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