Third stage of cellular respiration

Third stage of cellular respiration is the final common pathway of a cell to generate energy and occurs through the electron transport chain in which the metabolic intermediates of first and second stage of cellular respiration donate electrons to specific coenzymes – NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) to produce energy rich reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2. ...

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Second stage of cellular respiration

Second stage of cellular respiration carried out through the Citric acid cycle/ Krebs cycle/ TCA cycle in which Acetyl Co-A is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water, and reduces co-enzymes that are re-oxidized through the electron transport chain, linked to the generation of ATP. It occurs totally in the mitochondria of a cell. The enzymes of second stage of cellular ...

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First stage of cellular respiration

Simple food molecules such as glucose, amino acid, and fatty acid can all be used as fuels for generation of energy in first stage of cellular respiration, but glucose is the principal fuel. Therefore, the principal process of first stage of cellular respiration is glycolysis. In glycolysis, enzymatic breakdown of glucose occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell by ten ...

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What is cellular respiration?

Cellular respiration may be defined as a set of metabolic processes by which cells generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) from the food molecules and release waste products. In cellular respiration, oxygen is required to generate large amount of energy but cells can also generate a small amount of energy without oxygen under several conditions, including in ...

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Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease

The tobacco mosaic disease is caused by a rod-shaped virus called as TMV. TMV stands for Tobacco Mosaic Virus. It causes disease in Tobacco plant. It is a single stranded RNA virus with rod shape as you can see in following picture. Structure & Features of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) It is about 300 nm long and 15 nm in diameter ...

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Bacteriophage Structure and Function

Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria. They were discovered independently by Frederick W. Twort in England in 1915 and by Felix d’ Herelle at the Pasteur’s Institute in Paris in 1917. The term bacteriophage age was coined by D’ Herelle which means bacteria eater. Bacterial viruses are widely distributed in nature. Phages exist in almost all bacteria. Systematic:    Position Division: ...

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General Structure of a Virus

Virus can be defined as non-cellular infectious entities which contain RNA or DNA encased in protein coat and reproduce only in living cell. History of Discovery of Virus The word VIRUS is derived from latin word venome means poisonous substance, was used to describe any disease-causing substance. About 50 years before development of the electron microscope, the existence of viruses ...

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Factors Affecting Soil Erosion

Factors Affecting Soil Erosion Th major factor affecting soil erosion are climate, soil properties, topography, vegetation, animals, etc. Climate Precipitation (rainfall and snowfall), wind velocity, temperature and humidity are climatic factors that affect the soil erosion. Rainfall is the most forceful factor causing soil erosion through splash and surface runoff. In terms of temperature the climate is defined as tropical, ...

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Wind Erosion

Wind Erosion The removal and carrying away of soil particles b wind is wind erosion or soil blowing. It is essentially a dry weather phenomenon and is accelerated wherever the soil is loose and dry. Wind erosion mainly occurs near the ground and is influenced directly by wind velocity. Transportation of Soil Particles The soil transportation is caused by three ...

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Water Erosion Control

Mechanical Methods of Water Erosion Control Mechanical protection against soil erosion is expensive, time consuming and deserve careful thought and planning. However, it plays a very vital role in controlling and preventing soil erosion on agricultural lands. They are adopted to supplement biological methods. The mechanical measures include diversions, terraces, bunding, sub-soiling, basin listing and waterways. Diversion Drains A diversion ...

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