Plant Growth

 Growth Regulators Growth can be defined as an irreversible increase in dry mass of living material. It actually reflects an increase in amount of protein which has been synthesized, therefore the process of protein synthesis forms the basis of growth. Starting with an individual cell, growth of a multicellular organisms can be divided into three phrases: Cell Division: An increase ...

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Cell wall

Structure of cell wall Cell wall is present only in plant cells. Cell wall is non-protoplasmic. It is considered as metabolic byproduct of the protoplast. Cell wall provides support and protection to cell. It also plays an important role in absorption, translocation and secretion. Cell wall is divided into different layers. Cell twills vary greatly in composition and morphology. It ...

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PYTHIUM

Occurrence It is common in soil water. Its various species live as saprophyte. Some of them live on decaying plant as parasites. The parasitic stage attacks the roots and the seedlings. It causes disease Damping-off. Pyd him debaryanum causes this disease. Some species are parasitic on some freshwater algae. General structure The mycelium of Pythium consists of coenocytic, unseptate and ...

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Ascomycota

Occurrence Penicillium is a common mold. It is found on different substrata. It is most commonly found on citrus and other fruits. It is also found on f000stuffs, jellies, old leather, and paper and in the soil. Pencillium is used for the production of certain acids like fumaric, citric, oxalic. and Gallic acids. It is also used in the production ...

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Plant Tissue

Tissues The group of cells performing some collective function is called tissue. Tissues organize the body of plant for performing different function. Many types of tissues associate with each other to form tissue system. Vascular system is an example of tissue system. The tissues have following characteristics: Tissues are composed of many cells. These cells may be of one type ...

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SACCHAROMYCES-YEAST

YEAST Yeast are common in soil and on decay fruits. Yeasts are found in ails substrates which are rich in sugary substance. Yeast has great industrial importance. They are used in fermentation of sugar into alcohol. Yeasts are extensively used in bakeries and breweries. S’acc haromyces cerevisiae is commonly used yeast. Yeats extract is commercially used for vitamins synthesis. Yeasts ...

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ALTERNARIA

Occurrence AItemaria is a very common saprophytic fungus. It decomposes the dead part of the plants. A few species of Altemaria can attack on living tissues. Alternaria causes diseases in plants like early blight of potatoes and boll rots of cotton Vegetative structure The body of Alternaria is composed of branched, septate by Mae. Its colour is dark brown. The ...

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Secondary Growth of Root

The roots increase in thickness by the formation of secondary vascular tissues. The secondary vascular tissues are produced by the activity of the vascular cambium. It produces the secondary xylem towards the inner side and secondaryphloem towards the outer side. Secondary growth is common in  gymnosperms and dicotyledonous roots. But it is absent in herbaceous dicots and monocots. Vascular Cambium ...

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PHYLLACTINIA

Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Ascomvcota Class: Leotionmetes Subclass: Leotiomvcetidae Order: Erysinhales Family: Ervsimhaceae Genus: Phyllactinia Occurrence There are number of species of genus Phyllactinia. P. dalbergiae is commonest species found growing on the leaves of Dalbergia sissou (shnharn). The specimens can be collected in abundance during the winter on the fallen leaves of shisham. This fungus is an obligate ...

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BASIDIOMYCOTA

USTILAGO (Smut) Occurrence Usti.ago is parasite on the grasses like wheat. It is commonly called smut. It attacks on the ovaries of grasses. Sometimes, it completely destoy the whole ears (wheat) and produces black powdery mass of spores. Ustilago tritici is common in Pakistan. It attacks on wheat. Usti’ago avenae attacks on oat. Ustilago nada attacks Or barely. UstPago zeae ...

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