PTEROPSIDA-Ferns

Occurrence Adiantum is a common fern. It is found in the plains of the Punjab. It grows in shady places. It is found on moist walls or rocky places. The common specie of this genus is Adiantum Capillus-Veneris. General structure The vegetative plant body is a sporophyte. It is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots. 1.  Rhizome: The stem is ...

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The Family Ranunculaceae

Ranunculaceae The family include about 35 genera and 1500 species distributed in temperature and colder regions of the world. The family includes many common plants such as Ranunculus (buttercup), Caltha (marsh marigold), Clematis, Anemone, Thalictrum (mamira), Delphinium (larkspur), Nigella (kala zira) and Aconitum (monkshood). Distinguishing Features: Mostly herbs with simple leaves, flower hypogynous with free sepal and petals, stamens indefinite ...

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Key to Flowering Families

Families Key to Flowering Families 1. Leaf Venation ____ Parallel …………………………………………………Monocots A. Ovary Superior: i. Monocarpellary, Styles two and Stigmas feathery …………………………………………………Poaceae. ii. Tricarpellary a. Leaves large, fan-like or pinnately compound Stigmas not feathery …………………………………………………Palmae. b. Leaves long narrow, Perianth colored or white …………………………………………………Liliaceae B. Ovary Inferior: i. Stamens with colored (non-green) filaments Anthers monothecous …………………………………………………Canaceae ii. Stamens not Colored ...

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Dispersal of Fruit & Seeds

Dispersal of Fruit & Seeds The plants are fixed to the ground therefore they must develop a mechanism for distribution of their seeds and fruits. Thus, they adopted a mechanism of dispersal. The dispersal of fruit and seed refers to the carrying of these structures to places away from the plants producing them. If there is no dispersal, then these ...

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Morphology of Fruit

Morphology of Fruit The simulation of fertilization causes series of changes, not in the ovule but also in the wall of ovary. As a result, into these changes, the ovule developed into seeds while the ovary form the fruit. The fruit may be defined as ripened ovary containing seeds. The wall of the fruit is known as pericarp. True Fruit: ...

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Morphology Of The Flower

Morphology Of The Flower Flower is highly modified reproductive shoot. A typical flower consists of four distinct circles of whorls of floral leaves, the calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium, arranged on the thalamus. The calyx comprises of usually green floral leaves, the sepals and forms the outermost protective whorl. The corolla comprises of variously coloured floral leaves, the petals presents ...

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Inflorescence

Inflorescence  The arrangement of flowers on floral axis or peduncle resulting in formation of groups is called inflorescence. An inflorescence may be; simple, compound or of special types according to the mode of branching. Simple Inflorescence A simple inflorescence maybe racemose or cymose according to the mode of branching. Racemose Inflorescence: In this type of inflorescence, the main axis continues ...

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SECONDARY GROWTH OF STEM

 SECONDARY GROWTH IN STEM  SECONDARY GROWTH IN STEM The  stem increases in thickness In secondary growth. Secondary growth increases the  vascular tissues.  Therefore, it increases the thickness of flue stein. Secondary growth is common in gymnosperms and  woody dicots. But it is generally absent in most of the herbaceous dicots and monocots. Seeondary growth includes the formation or secondary issues ...

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PTEROPSIDA THE WATER FERNS

PTEROPSIDA THE WATER FERNS Occurrence Marsilea is an aquatic or semi aquatic plant. It is common in the temperate regions. It groNA in fresh water ponds and ditches in Punjab. Marsilea quadrifolia and Munilea minuta are commonly found in Pakistan. General structure The vegetative plant is a sporophyte. It is differentiated into roots, rhizome and leaves. 1.  Rhizome: The stem ...

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FERNS-PTEROPSIDA STUDY

FERNS-PTEROPSIDA STUDY Occurrence Polypodium is a perennial herb. It is found mostly in temperate regions. It has worldwide distribution. Mostly is attached to some rocks. But some forms are epiphytic. General structure The plant body is sporophyte. Plant body is divided into rhizome. leaves and roots. 1.  Rhizome: It forms the main stem of the plant. Rhizome is rounded, underground. ...

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