ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI

(a) Role of fungi in Agriculture or crop production Decomposition and humus formation: Fungi decompose the dead animals and plants. Fungi change them into humus. rums is decomposed organic matter. It plays an important role in germination of plant. It provides important nutrient to plants. Humus also holds the soil particles. Thus it reduces the chance of soil erosion. Humus ...

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Fungal diseases in plants

RUSTS Causative agent: Puccinia graminh (Basidiomycota) Affected plants: Wheat, barberry Symptoms: Reddish streaks (pustules) appear on the stems and other parts of wheat. These streaks may affect most of the plant. They give rusted appearance to whole of the plant. As the season advance-, the streaks change from red to bl wk. The crop gives burnt dried look. The barberry ...

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LICHENS

General characters:The intimate symbiotic association of fungi and algae is called lichens.Algae get protection and get moisture from fungus.Fungi get nutrition from the algae.The food substances diffuse from algae to fungi.The algae of lichens mostly belong to Chlorophyta and cyanobacteria. Distribution: Lichens have worldwide distribution. The form major part of vegetation in Polar Regions. They can withstand extreme temperatures. Classification: ...

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Physcia

General structure Physcia is foliose lichen. Physcia is divided into four regions internally. These regions are: 1. Upper cortex: It is present at the upper regions. It is composed of closely packed hyphae. Spaces are absent between them. if spaces are present, they are filled by gelatinous material. The upper surface may be smooth or it has hair like structures. ...

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BRYOPHYTES

Occurrence of bryophytes Bryophytes are terrestrial plants. They mostly grow in moist and cold habitats. Some species can grow in dry places. But they depend on moisture for the reproductive stage. Bryophytes have world wide in distribution. They are found in tropical, temperate, subarctic and arctic regions. General structure Bryophytes show alternation of generation. Gametophyte The dominant generation in bryophyte ...

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Riccia

Scientific classification Division Bryophyta Class Hepaticae Order Marchantiales Family Ricciaceae Genus Riccia OCCURRENCE The genus Riccia has aboutI30 species. Some botanists have reported its 200 species. Many of its species are found in Punjab. Kashmir and Western Himalayas. The species are found scattered from hilly and plains areas. All the species are terrestrial. They grim on damp soil or moist ...

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ANTHOCEROS

Occurrence Anthoceros grows on moist soil. They are present in shady places or ;n the crevices of rocks. Anthoceros erecrus, A. himalayensis, and A. chambensis are commonly found in Westeni Himalayas General structure Anthoceros has thallus body. It is lobed and it has irregular or dichotomous branches. The lobes have a wavy margin. Anthoceros form small rosette like plant. Unicellular ...

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PORELLA

Occurrence It grows on moist rocks. It also occurs on shaded sides of tree trunks. It forms dense mats closely covering the substratum. Some are aquatic and grow in cool waters. General structure Plant body is gametophyte. It is composed of three parts: I.  Stem: The mature plant consists of a slender dorsoventral stem. it branches extensively. The prostrate stems ...

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POLYTRICHUM

Occurrence Polytrichum have worldwide distribution. They are very common in cool temperature and tropical regions. Plants live in cool and shady places. General structure The main plant body is gametophyte. The adult plant consists of two parts: rhizome and upright leafy shoot. 1.  Rhizome: It is horizontal portion and grows underground. It bears three rows of small brown or colourless ...

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Photoperiodic Cycles

Photoperiodic Induction If a plant is exposed to periods of light and darkness long enough to promote flowering, it is said to be photoperiodically induced, and the minimum duration of light needed to initiate floral primordia is called inductive cycle photoperiod. It was observed that if a short-day plant growing under long-short conditions is temporarily transferred to short day conditions ...

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