Secondary Growth of Root

The roots increase in thickness by the formation of secondary vascular tissues. The secondary vascular tissues are produced by the activity of the vascular cambium. It produces the secondary xylem towards the inner side and secondaryphloem towards the outer side. Secondary growth is common in  gymnosperms and dicotyledonous roots. But it is absent in herbaceous dicots and monocots. Vascular Cambium ...

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PHYLLACTINIA

Scientific classification Kingdom: Fungi Phylum: Ascomvcota Class: Leotionmetes Subclass: Leotiomvcetidae Order: Erysinhales Family: Ervsimhaceae Genus: Phyllactinia Occurrence There are number of species of genus Phyllactinia. P. dalbergiae is commonest species found growing on the leaves of Dalbergia sissou (shnharn). The specimens can be collected in abundance during the winter on the fallen leaves of shisham. This fungus is an obligate ...

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BASIDIOMYCOTA

USTILAGO (Smut) Occurrence Usti.ago is parasite on the grasses like wheat. It is commonly called smut. It attacks on the ovaries of grasses. Sometimes, it completely destoy the whole ears (wheat) and produces black powdery mass of spores. Ustilago tritici is common in Pakistan. It attacks on wheat. Usti’ago avenae attacks on oat. Ustilago nada attacks Or barely. UstPago zeae ...

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STEM STRUCTURE

The internal structure of the stem is more complex. Stem is differentiated into nodes and internodes. The leaves are inserted on the nodes. The arrangement of leaves on the ‘nodes has made the stem more complicated. Stem has three fundamental systems. These tissues systems are epidermis or dermal tissues, ground tissues and vascular tissues. In conifers and dicotyledonous plants the ...

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Puccinia

Occurrence Puccinia is large genus. It has several obligatory parasitic species.tritici is a parasite of wheat. It completes its life cycle in two different hosts: wheat and barely. Thus it is hetcrocious rust. It infects the stem of wheat and causes black or stem rust.   Life cycle The life cycle of Puccina is divided into five stages on the ...

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Phytochrome

Discovery of Phytochrome Phytochrome is a blue-green pigment involved in the perception of photoperiodic stimuli controlling flowering and other growth phenomenon such as seed germination, etc. The discovery of phytochrome was made during studies by Borthwick, Hendricks and their colleagues. They revealed that a pigment system is involved in the germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds. They found that germination ...

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Agaricus Campestris

The members of this genus are commonly called mushrooms. Mushrooms grow on soil. They are abundantly found on soil with decry plant material and moisture. The specie ,4garietts campsites is very common. This species is edible. It is cult hated for commercial purposes. General structure The mature plant body is composed of two parts: vegetative mycelium and sporophores Vegetative mycelium: ...

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ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI

(a) Role of fungi in Agriculture or crop production Decomposition and humus formation: Fungi decompose the dead animals and plants. Fungi change them into humus. rums is decomposed organic matter. It plays an important role in germination of plant. It provides important nutrient to plants. Humus also holds the soil particles. Thus it reduces the chance of soil erosion. Humus ...

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Fungal diseases in plants

RUSTS Causative agent: Puccinia graminh (Basidiomycota) Affected plants: Wheat, barberry Symptoms: Reddish streaks (pustules) appear on the stems and other parts of wheat. These streaks may affect most of the plant. They give rusted appearance to whole of the plant. As the season advance-, the streaks change from red to bl wk. The crop gives burnt dried look. The barberry ...

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LICHENS

General characters:The intimate symbiotic association of fungi and algae is called lichens.Algae get protection and get moisture from fungus.Fungi get nutrition from the algae.The food substances diffuse from algae to fungi.The algae of lichens mostly belong to Chlorophyta and cyanobacteria. Distribution: Lichens have worldwide distribution. The form major part of vegetation in Polar Regions. They can withstand extreme temperatures. Classification: ...

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