Viral Diseases in Animals and Plants

Virus or viral diseases does not produce symptoms directly in the animals (humans). But it indirectly affects the host. Virus causes different diseases in animal and plants. Some virus stimulates the lysosome of host cell to produce hydrolytic enzymes. These enzymes cause bursting of host cell. These hydrolytic enzymes damage other cells. Sometimes, envelope of the virus is toxic to the ...

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Classification of Viruses

Classification of Viruses is to name and place the virus into different groups or subgroups in phylum Vira. The viruses are placed or classified into a group or sub-phylum on the basis of their different characteristics (Phenotypic Characteristics). Those characteristics are as follow: Phenotypic Characters of Viruses 1. Type of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) they have. 2. Morphology of ...

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Four Major Periods of Plant Evolution

The fossil record shows that there are four major periods of plant evolution, which took place the history of evolution of earth. Since the first organism formed on earth. But before discussing the periods of evolution let’s discuss the basic concepts of evolution in plants diversity. Basic Concept of Evolution in Plants Diversity Nearly all plants reproduce sexually. Most plants ...

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Characteristics of the 5 Kingdoms

Basically, the Kingdoms of life (The 5 kingdoms) was divided on the basis of two aspects, two points. The first was kingdom Classification System, while the second was Division Classification system. The 5 Kingdoms (Kingdom Classification System) In 1969, Robert H, Whittaker described a system of classification. This classification forms five kingdoms. This basis of classification of Whittaker is: (a) ...

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Taxonomic Hierarchy of Plants

Classification, taxonomic hierarchy and nomenclature of plants are included in plant diversity. The presence of variety of plants in the form of different Taxas (specie, genera) is called diversity of plant. Different plants have different morphology, physiology, cytology and anatomy. It produces diversity among plants. Scope and Classification of Plant Kingdoms The study of kinds and diversity of organisms and the ...

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First Vascular Plants on Earth

Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period. They diversified in the Devonian and spread into many different land environments. They have a number of adaptations that allowed them to overcome the limitations of the bryophytes. These include a cuticle resistant to desiccation, and vascular tissues which transport water throughout the organism. In most the sporophyte acts as a separate ...

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Difference Between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

Terrestrial ecosystems are distinguished from aquatic ecosystems. An Aquatic Ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. While the community of organisms and their environment that occurs on the land masses of continents and islands are Terrestrial Ecosystem. Aquatic Ecosystems Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment, live in aquatic ecosystems. The two ...

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Origin of First Plant Cell on Earth

Origin of First Plant Cell on Earth (First Prokaryotic cell) happened about 1.7 billion years ago. Up to 700 MYA (Million Years Ago), life remained fairly primitive; the distinctions between plants and animals were not very clear-cut. For example, bacteria (monera) show a variety of forms. Some take in chemicals and depend on atmospheric CO2, like plants (autotrophs). Others take in ...

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Survival of the Fittest Charles Darwin

Survival of the fittest was first used by British philosopher Herbert Spencer. Then it was used by Charles Darwin. Herbert Spencer first used the phrase after reading Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species. He used this term in his Principles of Biology (1864). He drew parallels between his own economic theories and Darwin’s biological ones. He writes that this ...

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Ecological Causes of Adaptive Radiation

The evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage is called or known as adaptive radiation. It starts with a recent single ancestor. This process results in the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of species. These species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits. Thus, they can exploit a range of divergent environments. Adaptive radiation can be graphically illustrated ...

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