Pollination process in plants is defined as the transfer of pollen from the (male part) anther to the stigma (female part) of the same flower or of another flower on the same plant, or to an another flower on a different plant of the same species. When the anthers are fully mature they shed off the pollens either through slits in their walls or through terminal pores. The pollen is generally carried to the help of various agencies like wind, water, insects, birds, etc. After pollination process completes the petals and stamens fall off. Sometimes the sepals are persistent and remain on the fruit.
Types of Pollination
The pollination is of two kinds. On the basis of different mechanism of pollination the pollination itself is divided into two types as well as the plants. The first one is called self pollination while the plants under this category is termed as self pollinating plants. The second condition is cross pollination and the plants under this category are defined as cross pollinated plants.
Self Pollination in Plants
Self Pollination Definition: If mature pollen grains from the anther of flower are transferred to stigma same flower or to that of another flower of the same plant, e.g., in Pea, Cotton or “Tomato, the process is termed as Self-pollination or (auto – self, Gamos – marriage) – Autogamy.
Their are different types of plants which self pollinate. Many of them are edible meaning they fruits or vegetables used by human beings. Here we are mentioning few of them.
- And Other Leafy Greens such as Spinach.
Cross-pollination is the rule in nature, and self-pollination is, in most cases, more or less incidental. Except in few specific cases, self-pollination takes place only when and where cross-pollination fails. Cross pollination is defined as the transfer of mature pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower of another plant.
Cross Pollinating Plants
The list of cross pollinating plants is as follow:
- Maple Trees
- Goat’s beard
A general view of pollination process, what does pollination do, Whats its purpose, what are agents of pollination. how pollination process is carried out by different factors of environment are briefly described here.
What Does Pollination Do
Basically, the pollination plays a important role in the survival of a flower. The pollination ensures the spread of pollens for production of high quality fruits and seeds. The transfer of pollen through pollination process in between the species leads to the process of fertilization and the successful production of fruits and seeds.
Purpose of Pollination
The purpose of pollination is very simple. Every living out their in environment wants to ensure its survival as we humans do. Different organisms have different methods to ensure their species survival and the best way is the production of offspring. The pollination process helps the parental plants in production of new offspring plants through pollination. Plants makes their offspring by seeds. These seeds produced by plants are spread into different areas and new plant grows from that seed.
Which Part of a Plant Attracts Pollinators
The most important part of plant that attracts the pollinator is the reproductive part i.e., the flower. Most pollinators including insects are attracted towards the flower organ of plants. Their are different factor that play in attractiveness such as the beauty, the color and most important is the fragrance released by flower. These factors helps the plant to spread the pollen. The pollinators come to the plant and suck the nectar. The best example of pollinators are honey bees.
How do Bees Pollinate and Which Bees Pollinate
In case of honey bees, they sit on a flower and suck the nectar during this process the pollens of flower get stuck to the body of bees and when they fly away towards other destination the pollen stuck to the body of bee pollinates that flower. Well, the bees indeed sit on the most attractive flower or drawn by sweet fragrance. According to studies the Bees which pollinate or helps in pollination process are honey bees, bumblebees, Pollen wasps (Tarantula Hawk Wasp).
Those agents which helps in the pollination process i.e., spreading the pollens from male anther of a flower to the female stigma of another flower are called agents of pollination. Another name used for these agents are pollinators. Pollination process is done by different pollinators in environment, but all of them are categorized into total three agents of pollination.
Anemophily: The pollination by wind is termed as anemophily or wind pollination.
Hydrophily: The pollination by water is called hydrophily or water pollination. e.g water lily.
Entomophily: The type of pollination which is done by insects is called entomophily or simply insect pollination. The insect which are involve in pollination process are wasps (Tarantula Hawk Wasp), ants, flies, moths, beetles, midges, mosquitoes.
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