Umbelliferae – Coriandrum sativum (Dhaniya)

Umbelliferae – Coriandrum sativum (Dhaniya)

Herb with a fistular stem, leaves, alternate, generally compound or much incised, inflorescence a typical compound umbel, flower actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, epigynous, pentamerous, calyx 5 sepals, corolla 5 free petals, stamens 5, bicapillary, inferior ovary. Some important genera are Coriandrum sativum, Carum carvi (kala zera), Cuminum cyminum (Safad zera), Foeniculum vulgare (Saunf).

Coriandrum sativum (Dhaniya):

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania)

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania)

Habit:

A cultivated annual herb.

Stem:

Erect, cylindrical, weak, herbaceous, fistular, branched.

Leaf:

Cauline and ramal, alternate, exstipulate, sessile, sheeting leaf base, compound, deeply incised 2-4 pinnate.

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) leafs

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) leafs

Leaflets:

2-3 lobed, linear, entire, acute, reticulate, unicostate, glabrous, herbaceous.

Inflorescence:

Compound umbel, involucres abd involucerl present.

Flower:

Ebracteate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, epigynous, cyclic, pentamerous.

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Flower

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Flower

Calyx:

Five sepals, calyx tube adnate to the ovary, gamosepalous, calyx teeth 5, small, unequal, slightly petaloid, superior.

Corolla:

Five petals, polypetalous, white, superior, inner or the posterior petals are smallest and lobed, the anterior is largest and deeply bilobed, two lateral are medium sized and unequal bilobed.

Androecium:

Five stamens, polyandrous, filament long, anther dorsifixed superior.

Gynoecium:

Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary inferior, a small fleshy nectar secreting disc lying above it form the nectar, bilocular with in pendulous ovule in each loculus, style absent, stigma two, arising from the disc.

Floral Formula: K(5)  C5  A5 G2.

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Floral Diagram

Coriandrum sativum (Dhania) Floral Diagram

Economic Importance of the Family:

Following are the economic importance of the family.

Source of Food:

Carrot (Daucus carota), parsley (Petroselinum sativum) are the chief members, used as pot herbs.

Source of Fodder:

Several members of the family are important as forage plant for cattle and horses. Of these carrot, Heracleum spp, Angelica spp, etc.

Condiments:

Ferula (Hing), Carum (Ajwain), Cuminum (Zira), Corandrium (Dhaniya) are used as condiments. These plants contain volatile oils which may be used for fragrance.

Source of Medicine:

Ajwain, Hing, Sowa are used as drugs. Hydrocotyle (Brahmi) is used for brain work.

Poisons:

Several plants contain acrid juices which are narcotic like Conimu (Hemlock).

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